Thursday, June 23, 2011


Giancarlo Giardina (ed.), Properzio. Elegie. Testi e commenti 25. Pisa/Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2010. Pp. 463. ISBN 9788862272926. €95.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Donncha O'Rourke, Corpus Christi College, Oxford (

Version at BMCR home site

It has always been hard to resist invoking Phillimore's quot editores, tot Propertii as the motto of Propertian textual criticism. This new edition of Propertius by Giancarlo Giardina succeeds his edition of 2005 (Properzio. Elegie. Edizione critica e traduzione. Roma: Edizioni dell'Ateneo ), and is the fourth complete edition of the text to have appeared since the same year.1 If the editor of the recent Oxford Classical Text celebrates an era of 'diversity and openness in textual choice', for which he gives us a new motto in quot lectores, tot Propertii,2 Giardina has gone one further as a single reader for whom there is more than one Propertius, and given us a second text which in certain respects makes the new OCT look conservative by comparison. In its preface, the new edition claims to be 'una ristampa largamente riveduta e corretta' of its predecessor, which was reviewed for BMCR by Frédéric Nau (2006.05.02). That review should be consulted for a description and appraisal of Giardina's approach to, and vision of Propertius, which in essence are unchanged; the present review will attempt to establish the extent and detail of the differences between the two editions.

The new introduction duplicates roughly half of its content (c. 11 pages) from the edition of 2005 (with minor differences of punctuation and fewer paragraphs).3 The second branch of the manuscript tradition (i.e. A and its descendants) is now called Π (as in Heyworth's OCT), but Giardina's position on the history of the text is essentially as it was (no stemma of the tradition is postulated in either edition). In particular, the new introduction reaffirms (2010: 17-19) its predecessor's disbelief (2005: 14-17) in the third branch of the manuscript tradition hypothesised independently by Butrica (as Χ) and Heyworth (as Λ), but now focuses on the arguments advanced by the latter in the intervening period, restating (this time without acknowledgement) Goold's observation that the manuscripts said to descend from the hypothesised Χ/Λ always fail to provide solutions where the undisputed branches Ν and Α/Π are corrupt.4 Giardina goes on to take issue with Heyworth's dismissal of error duplication between the manuscript T, hypothetically descended from the disputed Λ, and the two undisputed branches. Advocates of the third branch will respond that Heyworth provides many more examples where Τ shows its independence of errors in the undisputed Ν and Α/Π, including a sample of ten from the two surviving quires of A (spanning Prop. 1.1.1 to 2.1.63).5 T conversely duplicates an error found in A only at 1.18.19 where, in giving ardor for Ν's arbor, it commits a single-letter slip of the kind which in this edition Giardina thinks palaeographically plausible (see further below and, e.g., p. 34: '[n]essuna delle mie letture congetturali urta drammaticamente contro la verosimiglianza paleografica'). Differences of opinion aside, Giardina is not necessarily more likely to reject readings found in the manuscripts of the hypothetical Χ/Λ family, which he terms recentiores, and in which he finds many credible readings.

The introduction also revisits the (mis)use of loci similes by (unnamed) textual critics (2005: 20-21; 2010: 22-3): the earlier discussion of 4.5.64 is replaced by 1.3.16 (osculaque admota sumere et arma manu) which, for Giardina, constitutes a locus dissimilis with Ov., her. 13.141 (arma dabit, dumque arma dabit, simul oscula sumet), the latter not suggesting the innuendo of the former (some may disagree), the former not being as explicit as it should, and therefore to be desanitised as gaudiaque admoto sumere rara sinu. That such is the implication of the Propertian passage many readers will agree, but some may regret an emendation which defuses the latent violence that gives the poem its edge.6 Whereas the earlier edition highlighted such wholesale corruption of entire words (2005: 25), the newer edition also lays emphasis on letter-for-letter corruption (2010: 26-34), providing to this end a series of examples (2.4.13, 2.9.17-18, 3.5.3-4, 2.13a.1, 2.26b.23-4, 3.4.1, 4.5.21, 4.7.95-6: the first three of these have been incorporated in the new OCT) where sense can be restored without stretching the limits of palaeographical credibility ('uniscono alla corretezza sul piano semantico una certa solidità sul piano paleografico' [2010: 26]).

Having reaffirmed in this way the editorial principles behind the earlier text, Giardina reiterates that his edition is 'fortemente, spesso audacemente, innovativa' (2010: 34). This is even more true of Propertius 2010 than it was of Propertius 2005. The sheer number of departures from the earlier text may account for why these are nowhere listed in the later edition. Some 654 differences, to be posted separately on the BMCR blog, represent a departure from the 2005 text on average once every six lines approximately (this figure rises to once every 4.5 lines approximately for Book 1, and drops to once every ten lines approximately for Book 3). Of these differences, 377 (58%) represent new emendations proposed by Giardina; in 174 cases (27% of the differences), the new edition withdraws emendations proposed by Giardina in 2005. The codicum consensus is reinstated 87 times (13% of the changes), and abandoned 355 times (accounting for 54% of the changes).

It may be imagined that those who would emend the text only with the gravest of hesitation will be troubled that so many new readings should be introduced, in just five years, to a text that had already been radically edited. Such readers will at least welcome the restitution of the textus receptus at, e.g., 2.3a.22 or 2.18b.10, where adiunctos sedula lauit equos alludes once more to Callimachus hy. 5.9-10, or again at 3.1.30, where Parim is the lectio difficilior to Giardina's former parem. Conversely, the loneliness and isolation that are integral to the Waldeinsamkeit would dissuade most from emending the universally transmitted inflections of solus at 1.18.4 and 2.19.7. Those pursuing metapoetic readings are not likely to agree that the textus receptus should be mistrusted at 3.3.15 (where the substitution of flumine with munere denies this programmatic elegy an important Callimachean metaphor), or at 4.9.50 (where it is intelligible literally and significant metaliterarily that Hercules' transvestite hands are indeed 'hard'), or again at 4.10.3 (where the idea of Propertius' generic ascent is lost if we read intendo rather than ascendo); at 2.1.40, we do not need to be told that Callimachus does not sing inflato pectore in order to infer that he always sings, as the textus receptus tells us, angusto pectore. It seems unlikely that the adjective turpis is not the correct reading in at least one of the six places where it is rejected in this edition (1.16.22, 2.3a.4, 2.16.36, 4.4.1, 4.5.4, 4.7.55), especially since three of them constitute a possible thematic nexus in Book 4. If loci similes do have weight (the apparatus in this edition provides a service in swelling their ranks) but are to be treated with caution (as the introduction exhorts), then we might not find more compelling the parallels Giardina cites for, e.g., his fulgeat usque at 4.2.46 than those cited by Gregory Hutchinson ad loc. for the transmitted langueat ante.7 At 2.12.13 harundo is backed up with Virgilian and Ovidian parallels, but the loss of imago perhaps takes with it a Lucretian resonance (cf. DRN 4.1052-62). The parallels given for feruet sanguis may tempt some to replace the challenging uernat sanguis at 4.5.59, but they will lose their foretaste of the vernal imagery in the famous lines which follow. Nor need intertextual connection depend exclusively on lexical duplication: lentus (Francius) need not be adopted at 4.8.75 for the phrase cultus in umbra still to recall Ecl. 1.4, as Ovid (Ars. 1.67) and Martial (11.47.3) testify. The justification for emending 1.17.4 on the basis of similar cases of dactylic confusion in Propertius that are each already emended by Giardina is not without circularity.

Response to individual interventions is of course a subjective matter, and will depend inter alia on how risk-averse a given reader is. There is perhaps profit to be made from betting on, e.g., candidus at 1.20.32 (if a dolor! is not a Gallan ejaculation) or cluerant at 2.13b.38 (rarer and therefore possibly more likely than fuerant). At 2.32.55 femina quae (for dic mihi quis) looks like a winner with quae dea at the start of the following line. The parallel with Dido at 4.4.69 suggests that divine agency need not necessarily be involved here (although it may invert the Virgilian moment(s) that it is a goddess, rather than Giardina's uirgo, who feeds the flame of culpability). Those who invest in the transposition of 4.8.19-20 may stand to double their margins by adopting Giardina's tum for the transmitted cum.

Then there are the bigger risks, the bolder interventions, e.g., Cimmerias for Memnonias (1.6.4), fugis militis officia for uago fluminis hospitio (1.20.10), moecha for uerba (2.5.28). At 4.5.60, attractive parallels entice the investor to consider nam uolucris labitur usque dies for ne quid cras libet ab ore dies. Yet the real risk may, at times, be to keep faith with the textus receptus, challenging though it is. Paradoxically, many of Giardina's adventures will produce a less adventurous Propertius, at the cost (some may feel) of what is most characteristic of the poet (see also, e.g., fulgens. . .templum for fugiens. . .portus at 4.6.15, nimis. . .improba for tamen...ianua at 4.11.85). To this extent, Giardina 2010 will make us think again about where, despite the warnings, we take the Propertian text for granted, and work harder to justify our decision not to emend, when that is our choice. However, caueat lector: the decision not to print cruces desperationis (see p. 34), together with the sheer frequency of intervention, make it unlikely that any reader could, through this edition, become familiar with Propertius as known to most.

In editing Propertius so radically, Giardina can enjoy the reflections of G. P. Goold: 'Most men are more concerned to be slightly wrong, if they are to be wrong, than to be audaciously right, if they are to be right: there are perils in being right with a Galileo, whereas one risks nothing by being wrong in a conformist world of Ptolemaic error.'8 This new edition is indeed 'largamente riveduta', then, but amid so much revision it has given itself difficulty following through on the preface's second claim: as if to prove the inevitability of scribal slips and the consequent necessity for emendation, a considerable number of errors has crept into the new text and apparatus (and these too must necessarily be recorded).9


1.   Other editions since 2005, in chronological order, are: Viarre, S. (2005) Properce. Elégies. Collection Budé. Paris: Les Belles Lettres 2005 (an edition judged to be conservative by Giardina 2010: 27); Heyworth, S.J. (2007) Sexti Properti Elegi. Oxford (omitted from Giardina's list of editions on pp. 37-8). The same period has also seen publication of a further three texts and commentaries on individual books: Fedeli, P. (2005) Properzio, Elegie Libro II. Cambridge: Francis Cairns; Hutchinson, G.O. (2006) Propertius. Elegies Book IV. Cambridge; Heyworth, S.J. and Morwood, J.H.W. (2011) A Commentary on Propertius Book 3. Oxford.
2.   Heyworth (op. cit., n. 1), lxv.
3.   The only typographical error of potential consequence in the introduction occurs on p. 15 (four lines up) where 'APLPZ' should read 'AFLPZ'. Other errors are inconsequential: p. 18 (line 19): 'essere' not 'esssere'; p. 28 (line 6, in the quotation): 'its' not 'is'; p. 32 (n. 1): 'Cambridge' not 'Cambrideg'.
4.   Goold, G.P. (1990) Propertius, Elegies. Cambridge Mass. 13
5.   See Heyworth (op. cit., n. 1), xxx.
6.   See, e.g., the reading of Propertius 1.3 in Greene, E. (1998) The Erotics of Domination: Male Desire and the Mistress in Latin Love Poetry. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 51-9.
7.   See Hutchinson (op. cit., n. 1), ad loc.
8.   Goold, G.P. (1967) 'Noctes Propertianae', HSCP 71: 59-106, at 92.
9.   Errors detected in the text and apparatus can be found in the comments of this review on the BMCR blog.


  1. For those in possession of either Giardina 2010 (i.e. Giardina, G. [ed., trans.]. Properzio. Elegie. Testi e commenti 25. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2010) or Giardina 2005 (i.e. Giardina, G. [ed., trans.] Properzio. Elegie. Edizione critica e traduzione. Roma: Edizioni dell’Ateneo, 2005), the ensuing comments will list the differences between the text of Giardina 2010 and Giardina 2005 (§ 1). A list of errors in the text and apparatus of Giardina 2010 will follow below (§ 2).

    § 1

    Differences between Giardina 2010 and Giardina 2005

    Each difference is given in the form “2010 (2005)” (i.e. the 2010 text is followed by the 2005 version in parentheses). Emendations made by Giardina (Gd., according to his own convention) and the consensus of the N and Α/Π manuscripts (O or, at 4.11.17-76 where N is missing, FLPZ, following Giardina’s apparatus) have been recorded as the two extremes of possibility. Where the provenance is unspecified, the reading is carried by some but not all of the MSS, or is an emendation proposed by a critic prior to Giardina. A question mark indicates a reading which fails to appear in the apparatus criticus and for which I have been unable to establish a provenance outside this edition (for errors in the apparatus criticus, see § 2 below). Differences of punctuation and orthography are listed separately at the end of § 1. Differences arising from the correction of error in the 2005 edition (as at 1.6.9, 2.1.29, 3.11.34, 4.9.53, 4.11.20) have not been recorded.

  2. Book 1

    1.1] 3 nam Gd. (tum) mea Gd. (mihi O) 12 saepe (ille O) ferire (agitare) leas Gd. (feras O) 13 uulnere (uerbere) nerui (rami O) 30 femina (semita) norit O (monstret)

    1.2] 11 frondosior (formosius O) 21 cretis Gd. (gemmis O) 31 carissima Gd. (gratissima O) 32 nimiae Gd. (immodicae Gd.)

    1.3] 10 faces (facem O) 16 grandia Gd. (oscula O) admoto...sinu Gd. (admota...manu O) rara (ad ora) 18 fulmina (iurgia O) 20 innocuis Gd. (inclusae Gd.) 37 nempe ibi (namque ubi O) tuae Gd. (meae O) 38 exactis...sideribus O (exhaustis...roboribus) 42 maesta ? (fessa O)

    1.4] 18 modicis Gd. (tacitis O) 26 erepto Gd. (rapto O)

    1.5] 3 nouos Gd. (meos) 7 rudis Gd. (aliis Gd.) timidis Gd. (similis O) 9 sit Gd. (erit Gd.) 12 usque Gd. (una O) 14 tum (cum O)

    1.6] 1 uisere Gd. (noscere O) 2 fundere Gd. (ducere O) 4 Cimmerias Gd. (Memnonias) 9 etiam (meam O) nunc Gd. (iam O) 26 huic (hanc O) 29 gladiis Gd. (caedi Gd.) natus O (miles Gd.) 31 seu Gd. (tu O)

    1.7] 6 Gd. ( O) seruisse Gd. (placuisse) 16 non uis Gd. (nolis) 18 muta (surda O) 23 Maeoniis (Romanis O) 24 places Gd. (iaces O) 25 alto Gd. (tuo O)

    1.8a] 13 atque O (aut) non O (iam) ualidos Gd. (tales O) succedere (subsidere O) 15 spectabis Gd. (patiemur) 19 sic te Gd. (sis tu Gd.) post stricta Gd. (praeuecta O) 20 te suppleuit Gd. (nihil suppleuit.) 26 puella Gd. (futura O)

    1.8b] 35 bene Gd. (sine me Gd.) dotatae O (clarae Gd.) 42 cara (rara)

    1.9] 17 uiuo Gd. (uero O) 22 nil et Gd. (et nihil O) adoratae Gd. (instanti Gd.) 26 furit ? (subit O) 27 subducere Gd. (seducere O) 30 a! caue Gd. (a! fuge ?) 31 illis et O (illae uel Gd.) uelint Gd. (possint O) cedere O (caedere Gd.) uelis Gd. (possis O) spiritus iste O (sustinuisse Gd.) 34 qua (quo O)

    1.10] 4 petita Gd. (uocanda O) 15 diuisos (diuersos O) 16 ualidas Gd. (tardas O) 17 nocentes Gd. (recentes O) 23 contracta (irata) fronte O (uoce Gd.) 26 tristes Gd. (iustas O) 27 fis Gd. (sis O) 28 euentu (effectu) fruere Gd. (fruare O)

    1.11] 8 luminibus (pectoribus Gd.) 14 placido Gd. (tacito O) 30 funera Gd. (semina Gd.) amoris aquae O (nequitiae Gd.)

    1.12] 16 amans Gd. (Amor O) 17 at (aut O)

    1.13] 2 erepto Gd. (abrepto O) 22 in amne Gd. (umore Gd.)

    1.14] 5 innumeras Gd. (omne satas O)

    1.15] 8 suo Gd. (nouo O) 9 fracta Gd. (mota O) 13 dolebat O (manebat Gd.) 14 minus Gd. (tamen O) 25 renouare (reuocare O) 42 A! Gd. (O O)

    1.16] 7 putres (festae Gd.) 12 turpi sed Gd. (turpior et O) 18 quidnam Gd. (quid mihi O) tam (iam O) 22 tristis (turpis O) 23 mi...mi Gd. ( O) clara Gd. (prona) iacenti Gd. (uocantem Gd.) 24 Arctoo Gd. (Eoo O) mi Gd. (me O) nocet Gd. (audiit Gd.) 25 saeua Gd. (sola O) 26 mutua O (ianua Gd.) 29 candentior Gd. (uiolentior Gd.) Sicano O (Cerauno Gd.) 42 foribus Gd. (gradibus O) 43 uexi mea munera Gd. (uerti me, perfida, O) 44 innocuis Gd. (occultis O)

    1.17] 4 irato gurgite Gd. (ingrato litore O) uerba Gd. (uota O) 6 increpet (increpat) 9 tristes Gd. (solitas Gd.) 16 rara O (cara) 19 meam...fauillam Gd. (meum O...cadauer Gd.) 26 turgida Gd. (candida O) 28 pectoribus (litoribus O)

    1.18] 1 haud nocitura Gd. (et taciturna O) querenti O (uidentur Gd.) 4 surda Gd. (sola O) 11-12 nostra...limina Gd. (nostro...limine O) 12 transtulit Gd. (intulit O) 13 uerba Gd. (multa O) dolor O (furor Gd.) dictet Gd. (dicat Gd.) 15 miserae Gd. (merito O) ferus Gd. (dolor Gd.) 24 auibus Gd. (foribus O)

    1.19] 12 Ditis Gd. (Lethes Gd.) limina (litora O) 16 Venus Gd. (Tellus O) Gd. (om.) 19 ambusta Gd. (adusta Gd.) 25 interdum Gd. (integris Gd.)

  3. 1.20] 1 longinquo Gd. (continuo O) 2 decidat Gd. (defluat O) 9 Gigantei (Gigantea O) 10 fugis militis officia Gd. (uago fluminis hospitio O) 14 exesos...specus Gd. (expertos...lacus O) 15 miseri (miser O) 24 puram (raram O) 26 cupit...cupit Gd. (super...super O) 27 pennis (palmis O) 28 subinde uice Gd. (supina fuga O) 29 excelsa Gd. (extrema O) trepidans Gd. (pendens O) absconditur Gd. (secluditur O) 32 candidus Gd. (a dolor! O) 36 rustica ? (roscida O) 40 flores (florem O) 41 damnosis Gd. (formosis O) 47 (om.) labore Gd. (liquore O)

    1.21] 8 infestas (ignotas) 9 quicumque (quaecumque O)

    1.22] no differences

    Book 2

    2.1a] 1 mei Gd. (mihi O) 3 dictat (cantat O) 9 percurrit (percussit O) 11 iam poscentes (compescentes) 20 caelo (caeli O) 28 bella O (uela) plagae Gd. (fugae O) 31 tractus (attractus) 32 flebilis Gd. (debilis O) 35 conecteret Gd. (contexeret) 37 comitauit Gd. (sectatur) 40 intonat (intonet O) inflato Gd. (angusto O) 45 nostra Gd. (dura) uersamus (uersantes O)

    2.1b] 47 nou. eleg. (cont. O) illo Gd. (ultro Gd.) 48 solus O (sanus Gd.) 51 ducenda Gd. (tangenda O) 52 fero Gd. (suo O) 58 habet (amat O) 74 iusta O (iuncta)

    2.2] 4 tibi (tua O) 5 flaua Gd. (fulua O) et O (est Gd.) 6 magna Gd. (nupta Gd.) 7 Munychias (Dulichias O) arces Gd. (auras) 8 anguiferis Gd. (anguiferae O) 11 talis (Ossaeis) uluis Gd. (undis O)

    2.3a] 4 tristis (turpis O) 10 sunt (sint) lac. post 10 notauit Gd. (lac. non notauit) 11 certat (certet O) 15 illa Gd. (qua O) Assyrio (Arabio O) 20 par...Aganippaeae...lyrae O (est...Agganipea...lyra Gd.) 21 dicta Gd. (scripta O) 22 quod (quae O) quaeuis (lyricis Gd.) non putat aequa suis O (condidit apta modis Gd.) 24 candidus (feruidus) 27 iam Gd. (non O)

    2.3b] 45 [ut] (ut O)

    2.4] 2 aditus Gd. (recipi Gd.) 14 incautus Gd. (incautum O) habetur amor O (amoris iter Gd.) 20 gurgitis Gd. (fluminis Gd.)

    2.5] 4 facilis Gd. (Aquilo O) 21 periuro (periurae) 23 conuulsos Gd. (conexos) 28 moecha Gd. (pluma Gd.)

    2.6] 31 tenebris (terris O) 35 fana (fanum O)

    2.7] 2 flemus (flesset Gd.) 11 caua Gd. (mea O) faceret (caneret O) tibi O (mihi) Cynthia (tibia O) 15 saeua Gd. (cara Gd.) 16 magnus O (dignus Gd.)

    2.8] 9 nempe (saepe O) 13 sum Gd. (fui Gd.) 15 dignus Gd. (fidus Gd.) 19 umbram Gd. (umbras O)

    2.9] 15 non ibi tunc Gd. (cum illi nec) 17 raris Gd. (certis) 18 etiam O (acies Gd.) caedes Gd. (felix O) 33 infesto Gd. (incertae) 39 hanc mihi...uitam O (hac me...uita Gd.)

    2.10] 2 et O (est Gd.) 13 equitem...tueri O (mitti...sagittas Gd.) 16 domus O (nemus) Arabiae O (Hercyniae Gd.)

    2.11] no differences

    2.12] 1 primus (puerum) 3 primus (primum O) 8 saeuaque Gd. (nostraque O) 13 harundo Gd. (imago O) 18 bella (tela)

    2.13a] 1 armatur (armantur) Creta (Bactra) 8 notior (doctior) 12 pulchris (ueris)

    2.13b] 34 usque (una) 38 cluerant (fuerant) 45 trepidae (dubiae) horae (aurae) 47 fata (lustra) 48 squalidus (Gallicus)

    2.14a] 24 erit (erunt)

    2.14b] no differences

    2.15] 13 nempe Gd. (ipse O) nudam...Lacaenam (nuda...Lacaena O) 15 pulcher Gd. (nudus O) 17 tunica Gd. (iterum Gd.) 28 certum Gd. (solidum Gd.) 37 interdum (demum Gd.) 38 uelit O (uolet Gd.) 50 gaudia Gd. (oscula O) 54 inducet (includet O)

  4. 2.16] 28 hic Gd. (nunc O) 29 impendit Gd. (inuenit O) auaris (opertis Gd.) 34 bona Gd. (mea O) mensa (Musa) 36 stultus amans Gd. (turpis amor O) 39 insanus (infamis) 49 discurrere Gd. (percurrere O)

    2.17] 5 miserere Gd. (mirere Gd.) 13 improba Gd. (impia O) 15 nunc libet (nec licet O) 16 ac ? (aut O)

    2.18a] no differences

    2.18b] 5 seris Gd. (exactis Gd.) 9-10 post 12 transp. (non transp. O) 10 primum Gd. (prius O) adiunctos sedula lauit equos O (adiunctis lora leuaret equis Gd.) 17 piguit Gd. (puduit O)

    2.18c] 28 uertit O (mutat Gd.) 35 uultus Gd. (sensus Gd.)

    2.19] 5 uana Gd. (nulla O) 7 celsos Gd. (solos O) 18 pariter Gd. (rursus Gd.) 19 pinnis Gd. (rara Gd.) 20 cornua O (retia Gd.) 23 etenim Gd. (igitur O) 24 stricto O (pingui Gd.) tangere (figere O) 25 sacro Gd. (suo O) 31 iactem Gd. (gestem Gd.)

    2.20] 23 numquam non (non numquam) 24 numquam non (non numquam) 27 ipsa Gd. (una O) 28 nequitiae Gd. (naturae O) 35 hic...mos Gd. (hoc...ius O) praecipue Gd. (perpetuo O)

    2.21] no differences

    2.22a] 2 uenisse (uenire O) insanos O (insanus Gd.) 19 fata sequantur O (poena sequatur Gd.) 27 culmina Gd. (fulmina O)

    2.22b] 50 discere Gd. (dicere)

    2.23] 1 fugienda et semita O (fugiendum a flumine Gd.) 4 commissa (professa Gd.) uerba O (uota Gd.) 10 saeptus Gd. (clausus Gd.) 11 emitur Gd. (ducitur Gd.) 14 capta Gd. (saepta O) timore O (rigore Gd.) 22 nolim O (malim Gd.) pigenda (pudica O) 23 non ? (iam O) 23 amandi Gd. (amanti O) 24 multas (nullas)

    2.24a] 4 uel...uel Gd. (cui...non Gd.) retinendus (reuocandus Gd.) amor O (erit Gd.) 8 urerer (ureret O) non mihi (femina) daret (darem O) 10 num O (est Gd.)

    2.24b] no differences

    2.24c] 44 Phyllidas (Phyllida) 45 primo Gd. (-que ubi Gd.) 46 postmodo Gd. (est modo Gd.)

    2.25] 39 officia O (ora mea Gd.) 40 quantus (quantum O) sic (iam Gd.) pectora Gd. (lumina O) 41 claro Gd. (pleno O) niueam Gd. (teneram O) 45 illa in Gd. (fulgens Gd.) plebeio O (puniceo Gd.)

    2.26a] no differences

    2.26b] no differences

    2.26c] 29 nunc Gd. (si) nigrum Gd. (longum O) cogitat (cogitet) 54 morans (uorax Gd.)

    2.27] 5 sequeris Gd. (sequimur O) 7 om. et (et O)

    2.28a] 7-8 del. Heimreich notat (nihil notat) 11 terga Gd. (templa O) 12 aut O (an Gd.) oculos O (sacros Gd.) notare Gd. (negare O) bonos O (focus Gd.) 20 tandem Gd. (miser O)

    2.28b] 43 carmine O (munere) 53 Creta (Troia O)

    2.28d] no differences

    2.29a] 16 nigros Gd. (graues O)

    2.29b] lac. ante 29 notat (nihil notat) 37 pectore (corpore O) 41 sanctae...amicae Gd. (sancti...amoris O)

    2.30a] 9 incubat Gd. (excubat O) 11 etiamsi O (at iam si)

    2.30b] 31-2 post 24 transp. (non transp.) 25 mihi Gd. (tibi O) tecum Gd. (mecum O) 26 subire (tenere) 29 Semelam...complexus Gd. (Semelen combussit Gd.)

    2.31] no differences

    2.32] 3 nunc Gd. (nam O) 6 ducit Gd. (totiens O) 18 pectora Gd. (lumina O) 35 fama Gd. (Ida O) dicat O (uidit Gd.) 47 durasque Sabinas (durosque Sabinos O) 50 deripere (deligere O) 54 antiqui (antiquas O) 55 femina quae Gd. (dic mihi quis O)

    2.33a] 10 fundere Gd. (perdere O) 11 clausisti Gd. (laesisti O) glandibus Gd. (frondibus O)

    2.33b] no differences

    2.34a] no differences

    2.34b] 29 Erechthei (Smyrnaei Gd.) uatis Gd. (plectra) 31 teneri (lepidi Gd.) 34 magnus Gd. (magno O) ab imbre Gd. (amore O) 35 flexus Gd. (fallax O) 39 [non] Amphiaraeae (non Amphiareae O) prosunt [tibi] (prosint tibi O) 42 modos Gd. (choros O) 46 uiros Gd. (deos O) 52 atratis Gd. (fraternis O)

  5. Book 3

    3.1] 3 pura cum mente Gd.? (puro de fonte O) 6 -ue...-ue O (-ne...-ne Gd.) 7 Phoebum O (Tiberis Gd.) armis O (oris Gd.) 8 deductus Gd. (euectus Gd.) stamine Gd. (limite Gd.) uersus O (currus Gd.) 12 scriptorum O (seruorum Gd.) meat (meas O) 14 facit Gd. (datur O) rapta Gd. uia O (tam propere Gd.) 21 Parca Gd. (turba O) 23 carmina Gd. (nomina Gd.) fiunt meliora Gd. (fingit maiora O) poetae Gd. (uetustas) 28 campum ? (campos O) 30 Parim O (parem Gd.)

    3.2] 15 grata Gd. (cara O) 19 lapides Gd. (silices Gd.) 21 diues O (moles Gd.) structura Gd. (exstructa Gd.)

    3.3] 3 rerum...tuarum (regum...tuorum O) fata (sacra Gd.) 5 puraque Gd. (paruaque O) sanctis Gd. (magnis O) 13 Castalio...e gurgite Gd. (Castalia...ex arbore O) 15 munere Gd. (flumine O) 18 leuibus Gd. (paruis O) 19 manibus Gd. (scamno O) 20 culta Gd. (sola O) 25 digito Gd. (plectro O) rupem Gd. (sedem O) 29 mystarum (Musarum O) 35 stamina ? (carmina O) 36 nectit Gd. (texit O) rosas Gd. (rosam O) 42 tingere O (tangere Gd.) caede Gd. (Marte O) 46 torrenti Gd. (maerenti O) 48 feruida Gd. (ebria O)

    3.4] 1 ferus Gd. (meus) 5 Persae Gd. (Seres) 8 solitum...munus O (Iouis...signa Gd.) armigeris Gd. (armigeri O) equis Gd. (aquilae Gd.) 14 et Gd. (ad O) plausu (plausus O) 17-18 post 14 transp. (non transp.) 18 uenire Gd. (sedere O)

    3.5] 3 incuso Gd. (inuiso O) 11 ponto ? (tantum O) 26 qua (quis O) 45 mentes (gentes O)

    3.6] 6 uetus Gd. (debet Gd.) 18 crimina Gd. (iurgia O) 20 culpae Gd. (poenae O)

    3.7] 43 patrios (patrio O) 45 uiseret Gd. (duceret Gd.) coniugia Gd. (iumenta Gd.) natos Gd. (Penates O)

    3.8] 6 probrosis Gd. (formosis O) 22 discat (doceat O) 38 malum Gd. (decus Gd.)

    3.9] 32 officia Gd. (iudicia O) 37 tepentes (paternos O)

    3.10] 18 signa Gd. (iuga Gd.)

    3.11] 17 addidit Gd. (nihil addidit) damnem Gd. (carmen Gd.) hoc Gd. (in O) 32 iura (iuga Gd.) 35 harena O (plaga Gd.) 40 nihil addidit ( addidit Gd.) 49 metuenda Gd. (patienda O) 51 uada O (uaga) turgida ? (flumina O) 56 iam Gd. (id Gd.) malo Gd. (mero O)

    3.12] 12 armato (aerato)

    3.13] no differences

    3.14] no differences

    3.15] 17 tenebris O (latebris) 33 placido Gd. (tacito O) aquarum Gd. (harenae O)

    3.16] 16 usque Gd. (ante O) 20 inlaesis Gd. (inlaesi Gd.)

    3.17] 28 maxima (Naxia)

    3.18] 21 tendimus (eunt Gd. tamen O)

    3.19] no differences

    3.20] 16 noua (nouo O)

    3.21] 15 Romani colles Gd. (Romanae turres O) 29 uarie (certe O) 30 ac si Gd. (siue O) efficta est Gd. (effictae Gd.) Venus Gd. (nurus Gd.) 31 aut O (et)

    3.22] no differences

    3.23] 14 bene (bona O)

    3.24] no differences

    3.25] 11 prouectis Gd. (prolatis Gd.)

  6. Book 4

    4.1] 11 ampla Gd. (alta O) 16 non O (nec Gd.) 57 nempe Gd. (namque O) conor (coner O) 107 curuusque Gd. (uerusque O) 110 fera Gd. (pia O) 112 secunda Gd. (cruenta O) 118 sede (ueste O) 133 pectore Gd. (carmine O) 138 pueri Gd. (telis Gd.) futilis Gd. (utilis O)

    4.2] 3 e (et) 5 me (mea) 9 tortus Gd. (tantum O) 10 meo Gd. (deus O) 28 ero Gd. (eram O) 29 luces Gd. (lites O) 32 mihi (modo O) 34 subdolus Gd. (iam Gd. deus O) at Gd. (et O) 46 fulgeat usque Gd. (langueat ante O)

    4.3] 2 si O (nec Gd.) petis Gd. (potes O) 7 pharetratas Gd. (intactas Gd.) 11 paruae Gd. (opacae Gd.) 24 exiles Gd. (imbelles O) 47 cum O (dum) 51 mea Gd. (mihi O) nunc (mea Gd.)

    4.4] 1 putre Gd. (turpe) 47 lustrabitur Gd. (celebrabitur Gd.) 69 uirgo Gd. (Vesta) 86 culpis Gd. (poenis O)

    4.5] 4 putria (turpia O) 19 nihil suppleuit (te suppleuit Gd.) 21 topazontis Gd. (ex obryza Gd.) baca Gd. (rete Gd.) 24 fulgida Gd. (aurea Gd.) signa O (fulcra Gd.) post 26 lac. notat Gd. (nullam lac. notat) 28 haec Gd. (et) 41 uerba Gd. (probra O) 44 petit Gd. (utitur Gd.) astutos...Getas O (astuto...Geta Gd.) 49 aptus Gd. (factus O) 59 feruet Gd. (uernat O) aluus (annus O) 60 nam uolucris labitur usque dies Gd. (ne quid cras libet ab ore dies O) 69 gelida Gd. (trita Gd.) 70 nuda ? (clusa Gd.) 72 squalida (pallida) 74 claustra (clatra)

    4.6] 2 focos O (pedes Gd.) 7 tepentibus Gd. (recentibus O) 8 fundat Gd. (ludat Gd.) 14 tace Gd. (uaces O) 15 fulgens...templum Gd. (fugiens...portus O) 17 relegunt Gd. (pelagus O) 18 superata Gd. (operosa O) uada Gd. (uia) 21 hostica Gd. (altera O) 24 Latiae...aquilae Gd. (patriae...suae O) 25 acies (aciem O) Mauors Gd. (Nereus) 28 illa (una) 47 passis Gd. (classis O) remigat (remiget) 64 iniusso Gd. (indicto Gd.) 79 confisum Gd. (confessum O) 81 seu Gd. (siue O) placidus Gd. (aliter Gd.) 86 regna Gd. (tecta Gd.)

    4.7] 38 laedat Gd. (urat) 39 Publia uestes Gd. (publica noctes O) 40 stringit Gd. (signat O) 48 ingentem Gd. (ardente) 55 tristem (turpem O) 56 turbaque O (nauita Gd.) nauigat (remigat O) 59 itaque Gd. (ecce O) cetera Gd. (altera O) 69 maestis Gd. (nostris) 79 sterne Gd. (pelle O) nigrante Gd. (pungente) 85 hic (hic om.) 87 portis O (ab umbris Gd.)

    4.8] 2 cubaret Gd. (uacauit Gd.) 10 tenera (temere O) 19-20 post 62 transposuit Gd. (19-20 post 62 transponendos notauit Gd.) 26 pigenda (pudenda O) 28 polluto Gd. (mutato) strata nouare Gd. (castra mouere O) 35 secreto...horto Gd. (secreta...herba O) 37 Argiua Gd. (aestiua O) 38 grata (Graeca O) 41 Nanus (Magnus O) exiles Gd. (ipse suos O) contractus (concretus O) 42 aptabat Gd. (iactabat O) 19 tum Gd. (cum O) 63 triumphat Gd. (recurrit O) 64 uesana (peruersa O) 72 mihi Gd. (uix O) 75 lentus (cultus O) 76 tibi Gd. (cum O) 78 diu...morans Gd. (tuae...morae O) 81 respondi O (despondi Gd.) 82 dato O (rato) 85 lotas (totas O) mundare (lustrare) 87 mutato O (mundata Gd.) lecto O (ueste Gd.) 88 ascendi (suspendi Gd.)

    4.9] 14 infractas Gd. (implacidas O) 18 quaesiti (quaesitae O) 25 postesque Gd. (aditusque Gd.) 40 saeuas Gd. (uastas) 49 texit (cepit O) 50 puris Gd. (duris O) casta Gd. puella fui O (stamina pulla tuli Gd.) 54 sancta ? (tuta O) 56 sub modica Gd. (summota O) continet Gd. (uindicat O) 60 gurgitis Gd. (limitis O) una O (usque Gd.) 61 opacos O (opertos Gd.) 65 membra Gd. (fata O) 69 temeranda (ueneranda O) 74 consecrauere Gd. (percoluere Gd.)

    4.10] 3 intendo Gd. (ascendo O) ciuibus (finibus O) 23 hunc sequitur Gd. (insequitur O) 31 ipse Gd. (forte O) Romae Gd. (portae O) post 31 lacunam notauit Gd. (nullam lacunam notauit) 32 sacra tutus ab arce Gd. (sua fretus ab urbe) petit (dedit O) 39 Eridanum (a Rheno O) 40 relicta Gd. (relata O) 42 exsertis (effusis Gd.) toris (rotis O) 45 causa O (dicta Gd.) 46 uulnere Gd. (nomine) 47 capta Gd. (uicta O) 48 uerenda Gd. (superba O)

  7. 4.11] 4 serae (fores) 5 furuae (fuscae O) 8 turbida Gd. (ferrea Gd.) 11 census Gd. (nomen Gd.) 18 sint precor Gd. (det Pater FLPZ) 19 ac Gd. (aut FLPZ) cum apposita Gd. (quis posita FLPZ) 20 iam Gd. (in FLPZ) sortitus...lapis (sortita...pila FLPZ) 22 Gd. (intento...foro FLPZ) 26 rigida Gd. (tacita FLPZ) 30 nostra (Afra) signa (regna) 31 patria Gd. (altera FLPZ) materni (maternos FLPZ) arma Gd. (turba FLPZ) 36 ut (in FLPZ) 39 qui Gd. (et FLPZ) tumefactum Gd. (stimulatum) 40 truces (tuas FLPZ) proavo FLPZ (proavus) manus Gd. (domos O) 44 laus Gd. (sors Gd.) 49 quamlibet (quaelibet FLPZ) 52 grata Gd. (cara) 57 externis Gd. (maternis FLPZ) 85 si (seu O) nimis...improba Gd. (timida...domina Gd.) 86 saeua Gd. (cauta O) 88 uicta (cauta Gd.) legibus Gd. (curribus Gd.) manus O (locum Gd.) 93 lenire (sanare Gd.) 97 mater O (solus Gd.) sumpsi (sumpsit Gd.)

    Generally inconsequential differences of punctuation occur at: 1.2.12, 1.10.25, 1.12.17, 1.13.14, 1.13.22, 1.13.23, 1.16.26, 1.20.1, 1.20.2, 1.20.26, 1.21.1-10, 2.1.44, 2.2.1, 2.3a.5, 2.3a.16, 2.3a.35, 2.6.6, 2.9.42, 2.13b.24, 2.19.26, 2.24c.45, 2.29b.28, 2.30a.8, 2.30b.19, 2.32.46, 2.34b.42, 2.34b.77, 3.1.7, 3.4.4, 3.4.18, 3.10.15, 3.12.4, 3.13.26, 3.16.5, 3.16.13, 3.16.25, 3.16.29, 3.17.20, 3.17.42, 3.19.23, 3.24.16, 4.2.29, 4.2.29, 4.2.37, 4.3.25, 4.3.72, 4.5.53, 4.6.14, 4.6.16, 4.7.8, 4.7.84, 4.7.88, 4.8.20, 4.8.84, 4.8.88, 4.10.6, 4.10.17, 4.10.24, 4.10.28, 4.10.45, 4.10.45, 4.10.46, 4.11.22, 4.11.40, 4.11.79, 4.11.97.

    The 2010 edition no longer capitalises Amor (1.9.28), Forum (1.16.38), Manes (2.13b.32, 57), Mors (3.5.18) and, at the start of direct speech, Vicini (4.8.58); bella (4.6.69) is now capitalised after a proposed lacuna. In the inscription at 4.8.75 TIBURTINA is now printed TIBVRTINA. There are no longer square brackets around 1.18.13-16.

    There are differences of orthography at 2.22a.16 (Phryges is now printed Phrygis) and 4.6.29 (astitit is now printed adstitit). At 2.17.14, taetra in the text is printed tetra in the apparatus.

  8. § 2

    Errors in the text:

    1.19.12: read 'traicit' not 'cit'; 2.2.5 omits 'toto'; 2.4.1: read 'queraris' not 'querartis'; 2.8.21: read 'Boeotius' not 'Boeeotius'; 2.9.33 reads 'mutantur' O, but the apparatus and translation indicate 'iactantur' (Gd.) was intended; 2.9.46: read 'tuum' not 'tuus'; 2.12.8: read 'saeuaque' not 'saecuaque'; 2.13b.21 omits 'fulcro'; a closing single inverted comma is missing at 2.15.8; a full stop is missing at 2.15.30; 2.19.14: read 'ubi' (O) not 'ibi'; 2.23.22: read 'iuuerint' not 'iuerint'; 2.28.20: the translation suggests the intended reading was 'miser' (O, as in the 2005 edition) not 'tandem' (Gd.) (there is additional confusion in the apparatus: see § 2 below); 2.30b.36: read 'Bistoniis' not 'Bistonis'; 2.32.3 ends with “,:” (the translation indicates a comma was intended); 3.4.11 reads 'sacrae' (O), but the apparatus and translation indicate 'castae' (Gd.) was intended; 3.5.11 reads 'ponto' (Housman: omitted from the apparatus) but the translation indicates 'tantum' (O) was intended (conversely, in the 2005 edition, 'tantum' is printed but the translation suggests 'ponto' was intended); 3.8.26: read 'tua' not 'tu' (assuming this is an error rather than an unlogged emendation); 3.11.27 omits 'ego'; 3.11.46: read 'daret' not 'daret et' (diplography); the stichometry of 3.11.65-70 forgets that 67-8 had been transposed earlier (the poem thus ends at v. 70 rather than v. 72); 3.11.69 (= 3.11.71: see previous entry): read 'at' not 'ant'; 3.12.1: read 'linquere' not 'linquerente'; 3.12.36 omits 'sui'; 3.15.6: read 'nullis' not 'nullo'; 3.24.17: read 'uasto' not 'usato'; 4.5.70 reads 'nuda' but the apparatus and translation suggest 'torua' was intended; 4.6.16 reads 'condit' (O), but the apparatus and translation suggest 'claudit' (Gd.) was intended; 4.7.27 prints 'flentem' (as in 2005) but the apparatus and translation indicate 'toruum' was intended; 4.8.23 reads 'serica' (Beroalus), but the aparatus and translation indicate 'Cimbrica' (Gd. 2005) was intended; 4.8.34: read 'Venere' not 'Venerem' (cf. MSS at 3.13.2); 4.8.41 omits 'et'; 4.9.52: read 'canas' not 'canae'; there should be no closing inverted comma at 4.9.66 (Hercules’ speech continues); 4.9.74 reads 'Sanctum' (O), but the apparatus and translation indicate 'Sancum' (Heinsius) was intended (as in 2005); 4.10.15: read 'tibi' not 'tiibi'; 4.11.7 read 'aera' not 'aeras'; 4.11.48 prints 'leuior', but the apparatus and translation indicate 'melior' (FLPZ) was intended (as in 2005); 4.11.50 prints 'tristior', but the apparatus and translation indicate 'laetior' (Gd.) was intended (as in 2005); 4.11.50 prints 'excessu' but the apparatus and translation indicate 'euentu' (Gd.) was intended (as in 2005).

  9. Errors in the apparatus:

    1.3.32 is given as 1.3.31; 1.3.42 (maesta) is omitted; 1.9.26 (furit) is omitted; 1.15.9: read 'illa' not 'ila'; 1.16.26 comes after 1.16.29; 1.20.36 (rustica) is omitted; 2.17.16 (ac) is omitted; 2.23.23 (non) is omitted; the apparatus on p. 208 is unnecessarily divided into two blocks; at 2.28.20 read 'hanc' not 'haec', and 'miser' not 'eadem' (the text here is also confused: see previous list above); at 3.1.3 'pura cum mente' goes unclaimed; 3.1.28 (campum) is omitted; 3.3.35 (stamina) is omitted; the apparatus for 3.11.22 is given in the wrong order; 3.11.51 (turgida) is omitted; at 3.23.2, the ‘2’ has become superscript and affixed to the preceding P; 3.23.14 (bene) is omitted; 4.4.69: read 'alit' not 'alite'; 4.4.72 is given as 4.4.71; 4.6.8 is given as 4.6.9; 4.8.75 is given as 4.8.74; 4.9.34 is given without its line reference; 4.9.54 (sancta) is omitted; 4.10.42 (toris, Heinsius) is omitted; 4.11.40: read 'domos' not 'turba'.