Monday, March 2, 2015

2015.03.03

David Engels, Peter Van Nuffelen (ed.), Religion and Competition in Antiquity. Collection Latomus, 343. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus, 2014. Pp. 307. ISBN 9782870312902. €51.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Andrzej Gillmeister, University of Zielona Góra (a.gillmeister@ih.uz.zgora.pl)

Version at BMCR home site

[Authors and titles are listed at the end of the review.]

This volume attempts to apply a market place metaphor to the study of ancient religions. It shows a broad range of approaches within this theory, which function in the sociological studies of religion since Peter Berger's achievements in the late 60s of the 20th century and the influence of Rodney Stark's works on the study of ancient religion. The book contains 12 essays related to methological approach (two), the ancient Near East (one), the classical Greek world (two), Roman religion (two), competition in Late Antiquity (four) and a general paper about religious history in the first millenium AD.

The introductory chapter, written by David Engels and Peter Van Nuffelen, is extremely interesting. The authors present a very wide spectrum of methodological approaches connected with market place and competition metaphors. It is a brilliant introduction into the development of contemporary theories in religious studies. It puts the other papers published in the volume in a theoretical framework which shows that economical metaphors—market and competition—have their clear limits and should be used cautiously. This chapter also contains a good bibliography.

The article "Religious Rivalry in Seleucid Babylonia. Marduk of Babylon versus Anu of Uruk" by Tom Boiy (45-54) examines competition between those two patron deities and it shows how this process evolved.

In "Oracles and Oracle-Sellers. An Ancient Market in Futures" (55-95) Esther Eidinow assumes that the examination of the nature of the network interconnections between mantic centres and oracle sellers allows, inter alia, to define the efficiency of the market place metaphor. Eidinow's well-documented research clearly shows that there was a competition between individual seers, but we must stress that they functioned within a kind of network of relationships. It is also necessary to reappraise the idea of a competition between oracle sanctuaries e.g. Dodona and Delphi. They collaborated rather than competed. Eidinow is very careful in using the economic metaphors. She rightly draws attention to the fact that the market place metaphors do not fit exactly into the reality of the Greek world. In footnotes 104 and 164 there is a reference to Johnston (2008) but it cannot be found in the bibliography.

The next article "Liberty versus Religion Tradition. Some 'Impious' Thinkers in Ancient Greece" by Aikaterini Lefka (96-112) tries to answer the question why in the generally tolerant Greek society some philosophers were persecuted and even condemned to death. Lefka considers the case of Socrates, Protagoras, Anaxagoras, and the Pythagoreans. She claims that, along with other factors, the accusation of impiety was always an important part of persecution, and she treats these cases as the limitation of religious and social freedom in the ancient Greek community.

Dominique Briquel in "Etrusca disciplina and Roman Religion. From Initial Hesitation to a Privileged Place" (112-132) examines how the place of the haruspices in civic Roman religion evolved. Their presence in the ritual life of Romans could be a factor that inspired competition in this field. However, as Briquel clearly demonstrates on the basis of an analysis of the activity of augurs, the haruspices rather added to Roman religion the elements which this religion lacked. He rightly states that Roman and Etruscan priests took their duty to another level and were simply complementary to each other without being competitors. It was rather a peaceful cohabitation. He shows the religious and political roots of an originally hostile attitude towards Etruscan specialists in divination, but the situation changed under the Empire, and the Etrusca disciplina was completely integrated into a framework of civic rituals and was able to compete with Christianity. Briquel concludes his reflections with a statement that the Etruscan religious tradition was one of the most vivid components of pagan religion, which was very attractive to the believers, particularly in regard to its interest in the afterlife. I would only like to supplement the author's remarks on one point. The additional analysis of the activity of another priestly college, e.g. decemviri sacris faciundis could support Briquel's hypothesis by showing that during the Republic the official Roman priests acted at the civic level and haruspices only at the private one.

Françoise Van Haeperen devotes her article "Cohabitation or Competition in Ostia during the Empire" (133-148) to two main issues. She begins by addressing the question whether there was any competition between the members of a single collegium and if this rivalry could result in religious euergetism. The second issue is connected with the potential competition between new and old cults. She thinks that despite the well-attested presence of foreign gods, such as Mithras in Ostia, there is only little evidence of a real competition. The last problem she deals with is the question of contacts between pagans and Christians. Van Haeperen proves that the character of the potential competition between these two social groups may have been rhetorical rather than real.

In "The End of Open Competition? Religious Disputation in Late Antiquity" (149-172), Peter Van Nuffelen, one of the volume's editors, critically assesses Richard Lim's thesis that the decline of religious disputation in Late Antiquity was one of the reasons for the disappearance of religious competition. According to Van Nuffelen, this opinion is wrong because the persuasive discourse was noted as the most proper way to deal with religious pluralism even if its character was more rhetorical prior to this period. This careful distinction between discourse and reality deserves the reader's attention.

Veit Rosenberger's study "Competing Cenobites. Food and Drinks in the Lives of Theodoretus of Cyrrhus" (173-191) shows that one can analyse the thematic problem at several levels, e.g. as a competition between monks and the devil, or even God. The latter competition had a friendly character and was part of the priests' efforts to deserve eternal happiness in paradise. Rosenberg identifies another trace of competition in the relations between monks caused by the literary sources (e.g. Theodoretus). A further aspect of competition lies in treating martyrdom as an agon between ascetics and their persecutors. The last example is the rivalry between different groups of Christians, which can be regarded as the 'real' one. Rosenberger identifies these kinds of competitions by analysing various situations in which they could reveal themselves because, as he concludes, "the large-scale competition must be dealt with alio loco" (189).

In Ine Jacobs' article "A Time for Prayer and a Time for Pleasure. Christianity's Struggle with the Secular World" (192-219) we can find a very interesting analysis of how the significance of sacrum and profanum was established in Late Antiquity. She looks at the archaeological remains of theatre buildings as the basis for her analysis and argues that, when Christian buildings became more visible in the city, the role of theatres, even though they continued to exist, diminished. In the last part of her article Jacobs makes a fair analysis of the presence of the cross on this kind of buildings as a way to purify them from idolatry. She concludes her observations with the statement that in Late Antiquity the boundaries between the secular and the profane were quite obvious and these spheres remained in competition, especially in the late fourth and early fifth centuries AD. Jacobs also thinks that if the initial phase of this rivalry is well attested, the later evolution is more difficult to research. She is convinced that the sacred slowly won its battle for the Christian world.

Aude Busine, in her article "The Conquest of the Past. Christian Attitudes towards Civic History" (220-236), assumes that Christianity had to change not only the beliefs and customs of a city, but also modified a city's cultural identity. She considers the way in which Christians tried to compete with the pagan past of a Greek poleis. Busine thinks that the process which she calls "interpretatio Christiana of local myths" (226) pursues the creation of a new vision of civic past and ensures room for a new identity in the well rooted history of Greek cities. In some cases, however, it also tries to replace these local myths by new ones established on the basis of Biblical reality. She concludes that the aspiration to re-appropriate a charter myth showed that for the Christians of Late Antiquity the classical idea of the polis perceived as the urban and civic community was still very vivid.

The extensive study "Historising Religion between Spiritual Continuity and Friendly Takeover. Salvation History and Religious Competition during the First Millennium AD" written by David Engels (237-284) considers religious beliefs in a long-term perspective by examining their construction, continuance and evolution. Engels aims to present the material taken from different religions such as paganism (which he regards as common beliefs of the inhabitants of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity), Christianity, Judaism, Manichaeism, Sunnite Islam and Ismailism. This broad spectrum allows him to outline the history of religious history in the first millennium AD. Without any doubt this study, although it oversimplifies the topic in some sections, is very interesting. It shows that it is worth comparing even quite different cultural and religious systems to demonstrate their common roots and, most importantly, sometimes the intense competition or collaboration between them.

The last article "Oriental Religions and the Conversion of the Roman Empire. The views of Ernst Renan and of Franz Cumont on the Transition from Traditional Paganism to Christianity" (285-307) is written by Daniel Praet, one of the most prominent experts on Franz Cumont's work. Praet compares the ideas of the French writer and the Belgian historian about so-called oriental religion. He devotes his article to present the model of competition between Mithraism and Christianity as it was seen by Renan and Cumont. This is a brilliant presentation of the interaction between literary and scientific spheres in which the author clearly indicates the important role of classical education in Europe before World War II.

This volume, edited by David Engels and Peter Van Nuffelen, presents a high level of scholarship and provides scholars with new and original assumptions which allow explorations of the nuances of the sociological and, partly, anthropological approach to ancient religions. The articles are a masterful example of how a clever and prudent use of modern theories can provide a fresh view on ancient reality. They are all closely connected with the thesis formulated in the introduction, but the case studies clearly go beyond it. They verify the main assumption about competition in ancient religion as one of the most important factors present in ancient religions. The authors show us that the metaphors of the market place and competition in most cases should be supplemented by another one: collaboration.

As is usually the case of most Collection Latomus volumes, the book is a valuable publication, in spite of some typographic errors and small editorial mistakes.

Table of Contents

1. Religion and Competition in Antiquity. An Introduction. David Engels / Peter Van Nuffelen: p. 9
2. Religious Rivalry in Seleucid Babylonia. Marduk of Babylon versus Anu of Uruk. Tom Boiy: p. 45
3. Oracles and Oracle-Sellers. An Ancient Market in Futures. Esther Eidinow: p. 55
4. Liberty versus Religious Tradition. Some 'Impious' Thinkers in Ancient Greece. Aikaterini Lefka: p. 96
5. Etrusca disciplina and Roman Religion. From Initial Hesitation to a Privileged Place. Dominique Briquel: p. 112
6. Cohabitation or Competition in Ostia under the Empire? Françoise Van Haeperen: p. 133
7. The End of Open Competition? Religious Disputations in Late Antiquity. Peter Van Nuffelen: p. 149
8. Competing Coenobites. Food and Drink in the Lives of Theodoretus of Cyrrhus. Veit Rosenberger: p. 173
9. A Time for Prayer and a Time for Pleasure. Christianity's Struggle with the Secular World. Ine Jacobs: p. 192
10. The Conquest of the Past. Christian Attitudes towards Civic History. Aude Busine: p. 220
11. Historising Religion between Spiritual Continuity and Friendly Takeover. Salvation History and Religious Competition during the First Millenium AD. David Engels: p. 237
12. Oriental Religions and the Conversion of the Roman Empire. The Views of Ernest Renan and of Franz Cumont on the Transition from Traditional Paganism to Christianity. Danny Praet: p. 285

(read complete article)

2015.03.02

Giovanni Rapelli, Il latino dei primi secoli (IX-VII a.C.) e l'etrusco. ItaliAteneo. Roma: Società Editrice Romana​, 2013. Pp. x, 229. ISBN 9788889291214. €18.00 (pb).

Reviewed by L. Bouke van der Meer, Leiden University (l.b.van.der.meer@arch.leidenuniv.nl)

Version at BMCR home site

[The Table of Contents is listed below.]

According to Giovanni Rapelli the earliest Latin language spoken by Roman herdsmen was poor and heavily influenced by Etruscan, both in its lexicon and its phonology. He holds that the culturally superior Etruscans lived in the region of Rome before the Latins arrived from the north after c. 850 BC. The Sabine and Umbrian languages also would have been influenced by Etruscan. He further presumes that the Etruscans were immigrants from northwest Anatolia. Their language there would have been influenced by Anatolian languages (see also BMCR 2014.11.06), especially by non-Indo-European Hittite words (168-170). It would probably even show influences of Caucasian languages, e.g. Ubykh. Rapelli is further convinced that the Indo-European and non- Indo-European, Basque, Semitic, Altaic, Korean and Japanese languages all have their roots in a common, so-called Nostratic language.

Rapelli's knowledge of the Etruscan language is primarily based on nine publications of Massimo Pittau, especially his Dizionario comparativo latino-etrusco of 2009. Unfortunately Rapelli does not pay attention to modern archaeological and linguistic studies.1 Not one article in the periodical Studi Etruschi has been used. From the material point of view there is no evidence that Proto-Etruscans, bearers of the Villanova culture, were present in Rome before the Latins. The presumed Latin immigration around 850 B.C. is incorrect, since the Latial culture had already emerged in the 11th and 10th centuries BC.2 As for Etruscan immigration(s) into Italy based on Herodotus and the non-Greek, Etruscoid Lemnian inscriptions, there is now evidence to the contrary: Etruscan pirates from Southern Etruria may have settled on Lemnos, around 700 BC or earlier and had been responsible for the inscriptions. Moreover, Carlo de Simone has definitely shown that Etruscan is not an Anatolian language.3 The Etruscan numerals, very characteristic elements of any language, do not have any parallels in Anatolian or other languages. In addition, there are no lexical comparanda in Caucasian languages. The idea that the language families mentioned above have a common root (around 40,000 BC) is highly speculative.

What remains is the question whether early Latin underwent Etruscan influence in prehistory. This cannot be proven since the oldest Etruscan and the very few oldest Latin inscriptions date from the seventh century BC. Gertrude Breyer (not quoted by Rapelli) has elucidated which Latin words may be of Etruscan origin.4 Even her impressive study cannot indicate in which period Romans borrowed a particular Etruscan word.

The core of Rapelli's book, and its most imaginative part, is the etymological section. The author presents an unsystematic, non-alphabetic list of Etruscan, Latin and other words with comparanda in Greek, Anatolian or Caucasian languages. For example, he assumes that Etruscan farthana (girl, virgin, marriageable) is akin to Greek parthenos (virgin). Both words would go back to I.E. *per- (to generate) which he sees as a substratum of non-Indo-European origin (25, 50-51, 171). In fact, however, farthana, is the adjective of farthan which means genius, progenitor, begetter.5 There is no reason to translate farthana as virgin, let alone as marriageable. In addition, there are no other comparanda for a shift from an initial Greek p to an Etruscan f. An initial Greek p may become Etruscan ph but not f.

Curiously, in spite of the title of the book, few Latin words of presumed Etruscan origin are discussed. Those which are dealt with are unconvincing. I give an example: Latin loquor and eloquor are said to derive from Etruscan iluc "probabilmente lamento, cantata, iscrizione di lamento, canto funebre, epitaffio" (61-62). Yet it is known that the lexeme ilucve in the Tabula Capuana means "on the feast",6 which excludes a derivation of eloq- from iluc-. (In addition, the i in iluc- is not a prefix like the e in eloq-.)

Many comparisons are products of fantasy, for example the idea that Latin ferrum would be akin to or derive from Rhaetic *sersu and Etruscan *fersu or *phersu (87). It has long been known that Latin perso(na) derives from Etruscan phersu (an existing word) which means mask. It has nothing to do with iron. Most comparanda are reconstructions of Etruscan words (marked by an asterisk) made by Rapelli (often following Pittau) which do not exist in Etruscan; e.g. Latin fornicare/fornix is said to be akin to Greek pornē (prostitute), whilst Etruscan *phurne would be, Rapelli claims, the intermediate stage between the Greek and Latin word (53). There are no references to scientific Etruscan dictionaries that would enable the reader to check contexts and dates of word forms.7 Fortunately, the author is well aware that his etymologies might turn out to be illusory in the future (50). They already are. Although inexpensive, Rapelli's book is a source of disinformation about the influence of Etruscan on Old Latin.

Table of Contents

Preface (of M. Pittau)
Presentazione
I. Il latino delle origini
II. I primi Latini a Roma
III. Gli Etruschi primi abitatori della zona di Roma
IV. La geminazione delle consonanti
V. La sonorizzazione
VI. La fonetica etrusca
VII. L'impatto della cultura etrusca su quella latina
VIII. Etrusco e ittito
IX. Etrusco e indoeuropeo
X. Il popolo "nostratico" e i Caucasini
Considerazioni finali
Bibliografia
Indice delle voci trattate
Etrusco
Latino
Ittito
Greco
Lingue caucasiche
Altre lingue
Toponimi


Notes:


1.   Helmut Rix, "Etruscan", in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, edited by R.D. Woodard, Cambridge 2002, 943-966. Giuliano Bonfante, Larissa Bonfante, The Etruscan Language, Manchester 2002. Rex Wallace, Zikh Rasna. A Manuel of Etruscan Language and Inscriptions, Ann Arbor/New York 2008.
2.   See now Francesca Fulminante, The Urbanization of Rome and Latium Vetus: From the Bronze Age to the Archaic Era, Cambridge/New York 2014. Reviewed in BMCR 2014.12.30).
3.   Carlo de Simone, "La nuova iscrizione 'Tirsenica' di Lemnos (Efestia, teatro): considerazioni generali", Rasenna 2011, 1-34.
4.   Gertrude Breyer, Etruskisches Sprachgut im Lateinischen unter Ausschluss des spezifisch onomastischen Bereiches, Leuven 1993.
5.   Giovanni Colonna, "Note di lessico etrusco (farthan, huze, hinthial)", Studi Etruschi 48, 1980, 161-179.
6.   M. Cristofani, Tabula Capuana. Un calendario festive di età arcaica, Firenze 1995.
7.   Helmut Rix (ed.), Etruskische Texte. Editio minor. I-II, Tübingen 1993; Thesaurus Linguae Etruscae (ThesLE), Roma 1978 and 2009 (revised edition); see now also Gerhard Meiser (ed.), Etruskische Texte. Editio minor. I-II, Hamburg 2014 (revised edition of Rix 1993). For recent discoveries of inscriptions see 'Rivista di epigrafia etrusca' (REE) in Studi Etruschi. ​

(read complete article)

Sunday, March 1, 2015

2015.03.01

Books Received February 2015.

Version at BMCR home site

This list contains all books available for review this month (only those with asterisks are unassigned; those that appear without asterisks are already assigned to reviewers). Qualified volunteers should indicate their interest by sending a message to bmcr@bmcreview.org, with their last name and requested author in the subject line. They should state their qualifications (both in the sense of degrees held and in the sense of experience in the field concerned) and explain any previous relationship with the author or authors. Volunteers are expected to have received their PhDs. Graduate students writing theses will be considered if nominated by a supervisor who agrees in advance to read and approve the review before submission.

The list of books available for review is sent out by e-mail on or near the first of the following month. This page will not be updated to indicate that books have been assigned. Please consult the updated list of books available for review at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/booksavailable.html.

*Amato, Eugenio. Traiani Praeceptor: studi su biografia, cronologia e fortuna di Dione Crisostomo. Institut des sciences et techniques de l'Antiquité. Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014. 204 p. € 18.00 (pb). ISBN 9782848675060.

*Amato, Eugenio (ed.). ΕΝ ΚΑΛΟΙΣ ΚΟΙΝΟΠΡΑΓΙΑ: hommages à la mémoire de Pierre-Louis Malosse et Jean Bouffartigue. Revue des Études Tardo-antiques (RET) Supplément, 3. [Nanterre]: Textes pour l'Histoire de l'Antiquité Tardive, 2014. xix, 544 p. (pb). ISBN 9782955123706.

*Amato, Eugenio, Gianluca Ventrella and Lucie Thévenet (edd.). Discorso pubblico e declamazione scolastica a Gaza nella tarda antichità: Coricio di Gaza e la sua opera. Duepunti, 38. Bari: Edizioni di Pagina, 2014. viii, 288 p. € 16.00 (pb). ISBN 9788874704040.

*Athanassaki, Lucia, Tasos Nikolaidis and Dimos Spatharas (edd.). Ιδιωτικός βίος και δημόσιος λόγος στην ελληνική αρχαιότητα και στον διαφωτισμό. Μελέτες αφιερωμένες στην Ιωάννα Γιατρομανωλάκη. Heraklion: University of Crete Press, 2014. xxxvi, 571 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9789605244194.

*Bartsch, Shadi and Alessandro Schiesaro (edd.). The Cambridge companion to Seneca. Cambridge companions to literature. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. x, 361 p. $32.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107694217.

*Bermejo Tirado, Jesús. Arqueología de los espacios domésticos romanos: condiciones de vida y sociedad en la Meseta nordeste durante el período imperial. Colección Temas sorianos, 59. Soria: Diputación Provincial de Soria, 2014. 431 p.; 1 CD-Rom. (pb). ISBN 9788496695900.

*Betancourt, Philip P. The Hagios Charalambos: a Minoan burial cave in Crete. I, Excavation and portable artifacts. Prehistory monographs, 47. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xvi, 120 p.; [62] p. of plates. $60.00. ISBN 9781931534802.

*Bilby, Mark Glen. As the bandit will I confess you: Luke 23, 39-43 in early Christian interpretation. Cahiers de Biblia Patristica, 13. Strasbourg: Université de Strasbourg, 2013. 373 p. € 39.50 (pb). ISBN 9782906805125.

*Brandt, J. Rasmus, Marina Prusac and Håkon Roland (edd.). Death and changing rituals: function and meaning in ancient funerary practices. Studies in funerary archaeology, 7. Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2015. xix, 456 p. $70.00. ISBN 9781782976394.

*Brunet, Claude (ed.). Territoires et dépendances: approches linguistiques. Institut des sciences et techniques de l'Antiquité. Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014. 151 p. € 14.00 (pb). ISBN 9782848674919.

*Calame, Claude. Qu'est-ce que la mythologie grecque ?. Folio essais, 598. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 2015. 732 p. € 10.20 (pb). ISBN 9782070445783.

*Campos Carrasco, Juan M. and Jaime Alvar Ezquerra (edd.). Tarteso: el emporio del metal. Colección Historia, Serie Huellas del Pasado. Córdoba: Editorial Almuzara, 2013. 727 p. (pb). ISBN 9788415828303.

*Catti, Elisa Lanza and Keith Swift. The chora of Metaponto 5: a Greek farmhouse at Ponte Fabrizio (edited by Joseph Coleman Carter). Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014. xxvii, 479 p. $75.00. ISBN 9780292758643.

Cesaretti, Paolo and Silvia Ronchey (edd.). Eustathii Thessalonicensis exegesis in canonem iambicum pentecostalem. Recensuerunt indicibusque instruxerunt. Supplementa Byzantina, Bd 10. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xi, 385*, 492 p. € 179.95. ISBN 9783110195217.

*Dey, Hendrik W. The afterlife of the Roman city: architecture and ceremony in late antiquity and the early middle ages. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xiv, 291 p.; viii p. of plates. $99.00. ISBN 9781107069183.

*Dubel, Sandrine and Sophie Gotteland (edd.). Formes et genres du dialogue antique. Scripta antiqua, 71. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2015. 224 p. €25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131263.

*El Murr, Dimitri (ed.). La mesure du savoir: études sur le Théétète de Platon. Tradition de la pensée classique. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2013. 426 p. € 32.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711624959.

El Murr, Dimitri. Savoir et gouverner: essai sur la science politique platonicienne. Tradition de la pensée classique. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. 336 p. € 29.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711625864.

*Ferreccio, Alessia (ed., comm.). Commento al libro II dei Posthomerica di Quinto Smirneo. Pleiadi, 18. Roma: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2014. xxxviii, 364 p. € 58.00 (pb). ISBN 9788863727173.

*Feyel, Christophe and Laëtitia Graslin-Thomé. Le projet politique d'Antiochos IV (journées d'études franco-allemandes, Nancy 17-19 juin 2013). Études anciennes, 56. Etudes nancéennes d'histoire grecque, 2. Nancy: Association pour la Diffusion de la Recherche sur l'Antiquité (A.D.R.A.), 2014. 492 p. € 26.00 (pb). ISBN 9782913667402.

*Fine, Gail. The possibility of inquiry: Meno's paradox from Socrates to Sextus. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. iv, 399 p. $85.00. ISBN 9780199577392.

*Fletcher, K. F. B. Finding Italy: travel, nation and colonization in Vergil's Aeneid. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. viii, 280 p. $45.00 (pb). ISBN 9780472052288.

**Fossey, John M. Epigraphica Boeotica II: further studies on Boiotian inscriptions. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xviii, 344 p. $162.00. ISBN 9789004267916.

**Franz, Joachim, Rosemarie Günther and Reinhard Stupperich (edd.). "Ein Wald von Statuen": Kolloquium zum 20-jährigen Bestehen der Antikensaal-Galerie in Mannheim und zur Begründung der Kurpfälzer Abguss-Sammlung vor 300 Jahren. Peleus, 62. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2015. 300 p. € 37.00. ISBN 9783447103022.

Gerstacker, Andreas, Anne Kuhnert, Fritz Oldemeier and Nadine Quenouille (edd.). Skythen in der lateinischen Literatur: eine Quellensammlung. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 334. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2015. vii, 401 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110296716.

*Given, John (trans.). The fragmentary history of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430-476. Christian Roman Empire series, 11. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2014. xlviii, 194 p. $22.95 (pb). ISBN 9781935228141.

*Gonzales, Antonio and Maria Teresa Schettino (edd.). L'idéalisation de l'autre: faire un modèle d'un anti-modèle. Actes du 2e colloque SoPHiA - Société, politique, histoire de l'Antiquité, tenu à Besançon les 26-28 novembre 2012. Institut des sciences et techniques de l'Antiquité. Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014. 346 p. € 28.00 (pb). ISBN 9782848675046.

**Greatrex, Geoffrey and Hugh Elton (edd.). Shifting genres in late antiquity. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015. xv, 341 p. £ 75.00. ISBN 9781472443489.

*Hadot, Ilsetraut. Sénèque: direction spirituelle et pratique de la philosophie. Philosophie du présent. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. 452 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711625697.

**Hadot, Ilsetraut. Athenian and Alexandrian Neoplatonism and the harmonization of Aristotle and Plato (translated by Michael Chase). Studies in Platonism, Neoplatonism, and the Platonic tradition, 18. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2015. x, 188 p. $133.00. ISBN 9789004280076.

*Hakulin, Lena. Metals in LBA Minoan and Mycenaean societies on Crete: a quantitative approach. Heslinki: Unigrafia Oy Yliopistopaino, 2013. xvii, 253 p. € 35.00 (pb). ISBN 9789521092688.

*Horster, Marietta and Florian Schuller (edd.). Augustus Herrscher an der Zeitenwende. Themen der Katholischen Akademie Bayern. Regensburg: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 2014. 215 p. € 24.95. ISBN 9783791726571.

*Hoyos, Dexter. Mastering the West: Rome and Carthage at war. Ancient warfare and civilization. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. xxi, 337 p. $29.95. ISBN 9780199860104.

*Israelowich, Ido. Patients and healers in the High Roman Empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015. ix, 191 p. $59.95. ISBN 9781421416281.

*Johnston, David (ed.). The Cambridge companion to Roman law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xiii, 539 p. $36.99 (pb). ISBN 9780521719940.

**Jördens, Andrea (ed.). Ägyptische Magie und ihre Umwelt. Philippika, 80. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2015. 379 p. € 48.00. ISBN 9783447103169.

*Jouanna, Danielle. Les Grecs aux Enfers. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2015. 332 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251445274.

*Kullmann, Wolfgang. Aristoteles als Naturwissenschaftler. Philosophie der Antike, Bd 38. Boston; Berlin; München: De Gruyter, 2014. xii, 353 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9781614517733.

*Lane, Melissa. Birth of politics: eight Greek and Roman political ideas and why they matter. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015. x, 382 p. $26.95. ISBN 9780691166476.

Lee, Mireille M. Body, dress, and identity in ancient Greece. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xvi, 365 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107055360.

*Lehmann, Gustav Adolf. Alexander der Große und die "Freiheit der Hellenen": Studien zu der antiken historiographischen Überlieferung und den Inschriften der Alexander-Ära. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. NF, Bd 36. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter Akademie Forschung, 2015. vi, 257 p. € 99.95. ISBN 9783110405521.

*López Férez, Juan Antonio (ed.). La comedia griega en sus textos: forma (lengua, léxico, estilo, métrica, crítica textual, pragmática) y contenido (crítica política y literaria, utopía, sátira, intertextualidad, evolución del género cómico). Edstudios de filología griega (EFG), 14. Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas, 2014. 314 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9788478827886.

*López Férez, Juan Antonio. Mitos en las obras conservadas de Eurípides: guía para la lectura del trágico. Edstudios de filología griega (EFG), 13. Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas, 2014. 251 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9788478827879.

*Mahé-Simon, Mathilde and Jean Trinquier (edd.). L'histoire d'Alexandre selon Quinte-Curce. Recherches. Armand Colin, 2014. 299 p. € 30.00 (pb). ISBN 9782200294830.

*Marmodoro, Anna. Aristotle on perceiving objects. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. x, 291 p. $74.00. ISBN 9780199326006.

*Martinet, Hans (ed., trans.). C. Suetonius Tranquillus. Die Kaiserviten: Berühmte Männer / De vita Caesarum: De viris illustribus. Lateinisch-deutsch. 4., korrigierte Auflage (first edition 1991). Sammlung Tusculum. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. 1,262 p. € 99.95. ISBN 9783050063911.

*Nakassis, Dimitri, Joann Gulizio and Sarah A. James (edd.). KE-RA-ME-JA: studies presented to Cynthia W. Shelmerdine. Prehistory monographs, 46. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xx, 314 p. $80.00. ISBN 9781623033576.

**Neel, Jaclyn. Legendary rivals: collegiality and ambition in the tales of early Rome. Mnemosyne supplements. Monographs on Greek and Latin language and literature, 372 Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. x, 274 p. $148.00. ISBN 9789004272699.

*Nichols, Mary P. Thucydides and the pursuit of freedom. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press, 2015. vii, 196 p. $49.95. ISBN 9780801453168.

**Panagiotopoulos, Diamantis and Maren Schentuleit (edd.). Macht und Ohnmacht: Religiöse, soziale und ökonomische Spannungsfelder in frühen Gesellschaften. Philippika, 75. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. 162 p. € 48.00. ISBN 9783447102698.

*Pernin, Isabelle. Les baux ruraux en Grèce ancienne: corpus épigraphique et étude. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, 66. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée - Jean Pouilloux, 2014. 631 p. € 75.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356680402.

*Petrides, Antonis K. Menander, new comedy and the visual. Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xii, 322 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107068438.

*Piras, Giorgio (ed.). Labor in studiis: scritti di filologia in onore di Piergiorgio Parroni. Studi e saggi fuori collana, xiv. Roma: Salerno Editrice, 2014. xxviii, 296 p. € 28.00 (pb). ISBN 9788884028150.

Pitts, Martin and Miguel John Versluys (edd.). Globalisation and the Roman world: world history, connectivity and material culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. ix, 296 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107043749.

*Poursat, Jean-Claude. L'art égéen 2: Mycènes et le monde mycénien. Les manuels d'art et d'archéologie antiques. Paris: Éditions A et J. Picard, 2014. 303 p. € 65.00. ISBN 9782708409453.

Primmer, Adolf. Texte zur Handlungsgliederung in Nea und Palliata (herausgegeben von Matthias J. Pernerstorfer und Alfred Dunshirn in Zusammenarbeit mit Christine Ratkowitsch). Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 118. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2015. xvi, 387 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110370973.

*Quack, Joachim Friedrich and Daniela Luft (edd.). Erscheinungsformen und Handhabungen Heiliger Schriften. Materiale Textkulturen, Bd 5. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. vii, 349 p. € 89.95. ISBN 9783110371246.

*Quinn, Josephine Crawley and Nicholas C. Vella (edd.). The Punic Mediterranean: identities and identification from Phoenician settlement to Roman rule. British School at Rome studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xxxvi, 376 p. $125.00. ISBN 9781107055278.

*Rambourg, Camille. Topos: les premières méthodes d'argumentation dans la rhétorique grecque des Ve-IVe siècles. Textes et traditions, 25. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. 400 p. € 45.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711626076.

*Randsborg, Klavs. Roman reflections: Iron Age to Viking Age in Northern Europe. Debates in archaeology. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. xiii, 172 p. $78.00. ISBN 9781472579539.

*Sachs, Joe (trans.). The Odyssey / Homer. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2014. xi, 379 p. $20.00 (pb). ISBN 9781589880986.

*Salanitro, Maria. I nuovi frammenti del Satyricon. Materiali. Urbino: Edizioni QuattroVenti, 2013. 115 p. € 15.00 (pb). ISBN 9788839209771.

*Salapata, Gina. Heroic offerings: the terracotta plaques from the Spartan sanctuary of Agamemnon and Kassandra. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. viii, 393 p. $85.00. ISBN 9780472119165.

*Sartre, Maurice. L' historien et ses territoires: choix d'articles (textes réunis et édités par Patrice Brun). Scripta antiqua, 70. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2014. 740 p. € 30.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131256.

*Sauer, Eberhard W., Hamid Omrani Rekavandi, Tony J. Wilkinson and Jebrael Nokandeh. Persia's imperial power in late antiquity: the Great Wall of Gorgan and the frontier landscapes of Sasanian Iran. British Institute of Persian Studies. Archaeological monographs series, 2. Oxford; Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books, 2013. xvi, 712 p. $150.00. ISBN 9781842175194.

**Schmidt, Stefanie. Stadt und Wirtschaft im Römischen Ägypten: die Finanzen der Gaumetropolen. Philippika, 76. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. x, 320 p. € 68.00. ISBN 9783447102766.

*Schur, David. Plato's wayward path: literary form and the Republic. Hellenic studies, 66. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, trustees for Harvard University, 2014. xii, 132 p. $22.50 (pb). ISBN 9780674417212.

*Stefanidou-Tiveriou, Theodosia. Die lokalen Sarkophage aus Thessaloniki. Sarkophag-Studien, Bd 8. Ruhpolding: Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen, 2014. xviii, 302 p.; 10 p. of figures, 100 p. of plates. € 99.00. ISBN 9783447102407.

Stewart, Andrew. Art in the Hellenistic world: an introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiv, 357 p. $32.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107625921.

Taplin, Oliver (trans.). Euripides, Medea (with an introduction by Glenn W. Most and Mark Griffith). Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2013. 68 p. $8.00 (pb). ISBN 9780226203454.

**Visvardi, Eirene. Emotion in action: Thucydides and the tragic chorus. Mnemosyne supplements. Monographs on Greek and Roman language and literature, 377. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2015. x, 287 p. $149.00. ISBN 9789004269293.

*Vogeikoff-Brogan, Natalia. Mochlos III: the Late Hellenistic settlement: the beam-press complex. Prehistory monographs, 48. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xx, 143 p.; [9] p. of tables, [38] p. of figures, 18 p. of plates. $80.00. ISBN 9781931534789.

*Wallace, Lacey M. The origin of Roman London. Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xvi, 192 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781107047570.

*Ward, Walter D. The mirage of the Saracen: Christians and nomads in the Sinai Peninsula in late antiquity. Transformation of the classical heritage, 54. Oakland: University of California Press, 2015. xxvii, 193 p. $65.00. ISBN 9780520283770.

*Warren, James. The pleasures of reason in Plato, Aristotle, and the Hellenistic hedonists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xii, 234 p. $95.00. ISBN 9781107025448.

*Westbrook, Raymond. Ex oriente lex: Near Eastern influences on ancient Greek and Roman law (edited by Deborah Lyons and Kurt A. Raaflaub). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015. xx, 264 p. $59.95. ISBN 9781421414676.

*Wirmer, David. Vom Denken der Natur zur Natur des Denkens: Ibn Bāğğas Theorie der Potenz als Grundlegung der Psychologie. Scientia Graeco-Arabica, Bd 13. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xii, 784 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110271966.

*Woodman, A. J. (ed.). Tacitus: Agricola (with C. S. Kraus). Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xi, 358 p. $36.99 (pb). ISBN 9780521700290.

*Yount, David J. Plotinus the Platonist: a comparative account of Plato and Plotinus' metaphysics. Bloomsbury studies in ancient philosophy. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. xxxii, 262 p. $112.00. ISBN 9781472575210.

Again Available

*Kristionat, Jessica. Zwischen Selbstverständlichkeit und Schweigen: die Rolle der Frau im frühen Manichäismus. Oikumene. Studien zur antiken Weltgeschichte, Bd 11. Heidelberg: Verlag Antike, 2013. 493 p. € 85.90. ISBN 9783938032602.

Still Available

*Algrain, Isabelle. L'alabastre attique: origine, forme et usages. Bruxelles: CReA-Patrimoine, 2014. 320 p. € 80.00 (pb). ISBN 9789461360427.

*Andrault, Raphaële, Stefanie Buchenau, Claire Crignon and Anne-Lise Rey (edd.). Médecine et philosophie de la nature humaine de l'âge classique aux Lumières: anthologie. Textes de philosophie, 8. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2014. 493 p. € 49.00 (pb). ISBN 9782812430268.

*Baños, José Miguel. Las oraciones causales en latín: su evolución diacrónica. Philologica. Madrid: Escolar y Mayo, 2014. 203 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9788416020225.

*Bearzot, Cinzia and Franca Landucci (edd.). Studi sull'Epitome di Giustino, I. Dagli Assiri a Filippo II di Macedonia. Contributi di Storia antica, 12. Milano: Vita e Pensiero, 2015. viii, 277 p. € 30.00 (pb). ISBN 9788834328804.

*Boislève, Julien, Alexandra Dardenay and Florence Monier (edd.). Peintures murales et stucs d'époque romaine: révéler l'architecture par l'étude du décor. Actes du 26e colloque de L'AFPMA, Strasbourg, 16 et 17 novembre 2012. Pictor 3. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2014. 345 p. € 45.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131225.

**Boldan, Kamil, Bořek Neškudla and Petr Voit. The reception of antiquity in Bohemian book culture from the beginning of printing until 1547. Europa Humanistica, 12; BOH, 1. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2014. 260 p. € 70.00. ISBN 9782503551791.

*Bonnet, Corinne. Les enfants de Cadmos: le paysage religieux de la Phénicie hellénistique. De l'archéologie à l'histoire, 63. Paris: Éditions de Boccard, 2015. 606 p. € 79.00 (pb). ISBN 9782701803715.

*Borthwick, E. K. Greek music, drama, sport, and fauna: the collected classical papers of E. K. Borthwick (edited by Calum Maciver). Collected classical papers, 4. Prenton: Francis Cairns, 2015. xvi, 446 p. $140.00. ISBN 9780905205571.

*Bottler, Heike. Pseudo-Plutarch und Stobaios: eine synoptische Untersuchung. Hypomnemata, Bd 198. Göttingen; Bristol, CT: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014. 552 p. $150.00. ISBN 9783525253052.

*Christias, Panagiotis. Platon et Paul au bord de l'abîme: pour une politique katéchontique. Tradition de la pensée classique. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. 424 p. € 39.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711625550.

***Clarke, John R. and Nayla K. Muntasser. Oplontis: Villa A ("of Poppaea") at Torre Annunziata, Italy. Vol. 1, The ancient setting and modern rediscovery. ACLS Humanities E-Book. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 2014. 1 online resource. ISBN 9781597409322.

*Cojocaru, Victor, Altay Coşkun and Mădălina Dana (edd.). Interconnectivity in the Mediterranean and Pontic world during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Pontica et Mediterranea, 3. Cluj-Napoca: Mega Publishing House, 2014. 708 p. 150 lei. ISBN 9786065435261.

*Collette-Dučić, Bernard and Sylvain Delcomminette (edd.). Unité et origine des vertus dans la philosophie ancienne. Cahiers de philosophie ancienne, 23. Bruxelles: Éditions OUSIA, 2014. 478 p. € 22.00 (pb). ISBN 9782870601716.

*Cresci Marrone, Giovannella, Lorenzo Calvelli and Francesca Rohr Vio. Roma antica: storia e documenti. Manuali. Storia. Bologna: il Mulino, 2014. 379 p. € 32.00 (pb). ISBN 9788815251770.

*Daly, Kevin F. and Lee Ann Riccardi (edd.). Cities called Athens: studies honoring John McK. Camp II. Lewisburg; Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press; Rowman & Littlefield, 2015. xxxv, 457 p. $105.00. ISBN 9781611486179.

*Dickison, Sheila K. and Judith P. Hallett. A Roman women reader: selections from the second century BCE through the second century CE. BC Latin readers. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2015. xxii, 225 p. $19.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865166622.

*Dinkova-Bruun, Greti, James Hankins and Robert A. Kaster (edd.). Catalogus translationum et commentariorum: Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin translations and commentaries. Volume X: Pindarus, Aelianus Tacticus, Musaeus, Aulus Gellius. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2014. xxxiv, 403 p. $95.00. ISBN 9780888449504.

*Dräger, Paul (ed., trans.). Euripides. Iphigenie bei den Taurern: Griechisch / Deutsch. Reclams Universal-Bibliothek, 19264. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2014. 211 p. € 6.60 (pb). ISBN 9783150192641.

*Dubouloz, Julien, Sylvie Pittia and Gaetano Sabatini (edd.). L'imperium Romanum en perspective: les savoirs d'empire dans la République romaine et leur héritage dans l'Europe médiévale et moderne. Actes du colloque de Paris, 26-28 novembre 2012. Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l'Antiquité. Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014. 483 p. € 38.00 (pb). ISBN 9782848674988.

*Emilsson, Eyjólfur K., Anastasia Maravela and Mathilde Skoie (edd.). Paradeigmata: studies in honour of Øivind Andersen. Papers and monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens. Series 4°, 2. Athens: Norwegian Institute at Athens, 2014. xxxii, 276 p. € 10.00 (pb). ISBN 9789608514546.

*Emilsson, Eyjólfur K. and Steven K. Strange (edd., trans., comm.). Plotinus, Ennead VI.4 and VI.5: on the presence of being, one and the same, everywhere as a whole. The Enneads of Plotinus with philosophical commentaries. Las Vegas; Zurich; Athens: Parmenides Publishing, 2015. 295 p. $37.00 (pb). ISBN 9781930972346.

*Faber, Eike. Von Ulfila bis Rekkared: die Goten und ihr Christentum. Potsdamer Altertumswissenschaftliche Beiträge, Bd 51. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 300 p. € 62.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515109260.

*Fattal, Michel. Du logos de Plotin au logos de saint Jean: vers la solution d'un problème métaphysique?. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 2014. 128 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9782204103114.

*Ferber, Rafael. Key concepts in philosophy: an introduction (translated from German by Ladislaus Löb; first edition published 1994). Academia philosophical studies, 50. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2014. 242 p. € 28.50. ISBN 9783896656483.

**Ferreri, Luigi. Le Théocrite de l'humaniste Marcus Musurus. Avec l'édition critique des Idylles XXIV-XXVII de Théocrite. Europa Humanistica, 13 Du manuscrit à l'imprimé (DMI), 2. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2014. 190 p. € 70.00. ISBN 9782503553009.

**Geller, Markham J. (ed.). Melammu: the ancient world in an age of globalization. Max Planck Research Library for the history and development of knowledge: Proceedings, 7. Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, 2014. xi, 385 p. € 19.76 (also available as Open Access book). ISBN 9783945561003.

*Georgoulas, Elias N. (ed., trans., comm.). Αριστοτέλης, Μικρά φυσικά. Αριστοτέλης Έργα, 14. Athens: Νήσος, 2014. 348 p. € 24.00 (pb). ISBN 9789609535922.

*Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile. Cynisme et christianisme dans l'Antiquité. Textes et traditions, 26. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. 250 p. € 30.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711626069.

**Grieb, Volker, Agnieszka Wojciechowska and Krzysztof Nawotka (edd.). Alexander the Great and Egypt: history, art, tradition, Wroclaw/Breslau, 18./19. Nov. 2011. Philippika, 74. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. 458 p. € 83.00. ISBN 9783447102704.

*Hadot, Ilsetraut. Le néoplatonicien Simplicius a la lumière des recherches contemporaines: un bilan critique (avec deux contributions de Philippe Vallat). Academia philosophical studies, 47. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2014. 311 p. € 34.50 (pb). ISBN 9783896656391.

*Hammer, Dean. Roman political thought: from Cicero to Augustine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xvii, 555 p. $90.00. ISBN 9780521195249.

*Hejduk, Julia Dyson (trans.). Ovid. The offense of love: Ars amatoria, Remedia amoris, and Tristia 2. Wisconsin studies in classics. Madison; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014. xviii, 268 p. $19.95 (pb). ISBN 9780299302047.

*Hogan, Patrick Paul (ed., comm.). A student commentary on Pausanias Book 1. Michigan classical commentaries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. xix, 219 p. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 9780472052103.

*Hollinshead, Mary B. Shaping ceremony: monumental steps and Greek architecture. Wisconsin studies in classics. Madison; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. xiii, 233 p. $50.00. ISBN 9780299301101.

*Inglebert, Hervé. Le monde, l'histoire: essai sur les histoires universelles. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2014. 1,237 p. € 29.00 (pb). ISBN 9782130631286.

**Kieburg, Anna and Susanne Moraw (edd.). Mädchen im Altertum / Girls in antiquity. Frauen - Forschung - Archäologie, 11. Münster, Westf.: Waxmann, 2014. 436 p. € 68.00. ISBN 9783830931010.

*Kobusch, Philipp. Die Grabbauten im römischen Hispanien: zur kulturellen Prägung der Sepulkralarchitektur. Tübinger Archäologische Forschungen, 14. Rahden/Westf.: VML Verlag Marie Leidorf, 2014. 482 p. € 64.80. ISBN 9783896469946.

*Köhler, Gerhard. Zenon von Elea: Studien zu den 'Argumenten gegen die Vielheit' und zum sogenannten 'Argument des Orts'. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 330. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. viii, 440 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110362923.

*Lafrance, Yvon. La théorie platonicienne de la doxa. Deuxième edition (first published 1981). Études anciennes. Série grecque, 149. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2015. 584 p. € 65.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251403335.

**Lavery, Hannah. The impotency poem from ancient Latin to restoration English literature. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. 206 p. $109.95. ISBN 9781472422026.

*Long, Christopher P. Socratic and Platonic political philosophy: practicing a politics of reading. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xxi, 205 p. $90.00. ISBN 9781107040359.

*McLean, Susan (trans.). Martial. Selected epigrams. Wisconsin studies in classics. Madison; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014. lvii, 189 p. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 9780299301743.

*Michalopoulos, Charilaos N. Μύθος, γλώσσα και φύλο στο Corpus Priapeorum. Athens: Εκδόσεις Πεδίο, 2014. 318 p. € 19.90 (pb). ISBN 9789605464134.

*Mulroy, David (trans.). Sophocles. Oedipus at Colonus. Wisconsin studies in classics. Madison; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014. lxxii, 100 p. $9.95 (pb). ISBN 9780299302542.

*O'Connell, Elisabeth R. (ed.). Egypt in the First Millennium AD: perspectives from new fieldwork. British Museum publications on Egypt and Sudan, 2. Leuven; Paris; Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2014. xiv, 230 p.; [68] p. of plates. € 95.00. ISBN 9789042930711.

*Olivier-Trottenberg, Yasmin. Corpus vasorum antiquorum, Deutschland. Band 96, München, Antikensammlungen, ehemals Museum Antiker Kleinkunst. Band 17, Etruskisch Schwarzfigurige Keramik. Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Deutschland, Bd 96. München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 2014. 164 p.; 16 p. of figures, 87 p. of plates. € 98.00. ISBN 9783406666568.

*Papadopoulos, Thanasis J. and Litsa Kontorli-Papadopoulou. Vravron: the Mycenaean cemetery. Studies in Mediterranean archaeology, 142. Uppsala: Åströms Förlag, 2014. xxii, 284 p. € 76.00. ISBN 9789170812552.

**Payne, Richard and Mehrnoush Soroush (edd.). The archaeology of Sasanian politics. Journal of Ancient History (special issue), 2.2 (2014). Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. [136] p. $74.00. ISSN 2324-8106.

*Périllié, Jean-Luc. Mystères socratiques et traditions orales de l'eudémonisme dans les Dialogues de Platon (préface de Thomas A. Szlezák). Academia philosophical studies, 49. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2014. 520 p. € 49.00 (pb). ISBN 9783896656490.

*Rhodes, P. J. (ed., trans., comm.). Thucydides: History Book I. Classical texts. Oxford; Havertown, PA: Aris & Phillips, 2014. viii, 282 p. £ 19.99 (pb). ISBN 9781908343963.

*Rubel, Alexander. Fear and loathing in ancient Athens: religion and politics during the Peloponnesian War (translated by Michael Vickers and Alina Piftor; first published in German 2000). Durham; Bristol, CT: Acumen, 2014. x, 316 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781844655700.

*Seland, Torrey (ed.). Reading Philo: a handbook to Philo of Alexandria. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2014. xvi, 345 p. $45.00 (pb). ISBN 9780802870698.

*Stevenson, Tom. Julius Caesar and the transformation of the Roman Republic. London; New York: Routledge, 2015. x, 212 p. $44.95 (pb). ISBN 9781138808218.

*Thorsen, Thea S. Ovid's early poetry: from his single Heroides to his Remedia amoris. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xii, 223 p. $95.00. ISBN 9781107040410.

**Trampedach, Kai. Politische Mantik: die Kommunikation über Götterzeichen und Orakel im klassischen Griechenland. Studien zur Alten Geschichte, Bd 21. Heidelberg, Neckar: Verlag Antike, 2014. 652 p. € 89.90. ISBN 9783938032787.

*Vogeikoff-Brogan, Natalia, Jack L. Davis and Vasiliki Florou (edd.). Carl W. Blegen: personal and archaelogical narratives. Atlanta: Lockwood Press, 2015. xii, 240 p. $34.95. ISBN 9781937040222.

*Vollmer, Cornelius. Im Anfang war der Thron: Studien zum leeren Thron in der griechischen, römischen und frühchristlichen Ikonographie. Tübinger Archäologische Forschungen, 15. Rahden/Westf.: VML Verlag Marie Leidorf, 2014. 574 p. € 64.80. ISBN 9783896469953.

*Webb, Jennifer M. (ed.). Structure, measurement and meaning: studies on prehistoric Cyprus in honour of David Frankel. Studies in Mediterranean archaeology, 143. Uppsala: Åströms Förlag, 2014. xx, 271 p. € 80.00. ISBN 9789198153514.

*Wellington Gahtan, Maia and Donatella Pegazzano. Museum archtetypes and collecting in the ancient world. Monumenta Graeca et Romana, 21. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2015. xiv, 222 p. $175.00. ISBN 9789004280502.

*Xenis, Georgios A. (ed.). Iohannes Alexandrinus. Praecepta Tonica. Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, 2015. Berlin; München; Boston: De Gruyter, 2015. xlix, 218 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110251562.

*Abenstein, Christina. Die Basilius-Übersetzung des Georg von Trapezunt in ihrem historischen Kontext. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 336. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 328 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110378917.

*Asmonti, Luca. Athenian democracy: a sourcebook. Bloomsbury sources in ancient history. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2014. xiv, 246 p. $39.95 (pb). ISBN 9781441113719.

*Aspaas, Per Pippin, Sigrid Albert and Fredrik Nilsen (edd.). Rara avis Ultima Thule: Libellus festivus Sunnivae des Bouvrie dedicatus / Festschrift for Synnøve des Bouvrie. Nordlit, 33. Tromsø: UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Culture and Literature, 2014. xl, 361 p. (pb). ISBN 9788282441254.

*Bravo Díaz, José-Román (ed., trans., comm.). Séneca. Cuestiones naturales. Biblioteca clásica Gredos, 410. Madrid: Editorial Gredos, 2013. 654 p. € 36.00. ISBN 9788424911102.

*Broggiato, Maria. Filologia e interpretazione a Pergamo: la scuola di Cratete. Studi e Ricerche, 13. Studi umanistici - Antichistica. Roma: Sapienza Università Editrice, 2014. xlvii, 177 p. (pb). ISBN 9788898533152.

*Brunelle, Christopher M. (comm.). Ovid, Ars amatoria Book 3. Oxford Greek and Latin college commentaries. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. ix, 131 p. $26.95. ISBN 9780199987337.

*Carrara, Laura (ed.). L'indovino Poliido: Eschilo, Le Cretesi; Sofocle, Manteis; Euripide, Poliido. Pleiadi, 17. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2014. xxiv, 497 p. € 48.00 (pb). ISBN 9788863726688.

**Corti, Aurora. L'Adversus Colotem di Plutarco: storia di una polemica filosofica. Plutarchea hypomnemata. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2014. 326 p. € 79.00. ISBN 9789462700093.

*Distefano, Alberto. L'altare dell'Olympieion di Akragas: analisi costruttiva e ipotesi di restituzione. Biblioteca di Sicilia antiqua, 6. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2014. 74 p. € 58.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862277327.

*Donahue, John F. Food and drink in antiquity: readings from the Graeco-Roman world. A sourcebook. Bloomsbury sources in ancient history. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2015. x, 299 p. $39.95 (pb). ISBN 9781441133458.

*Empereur, Jean-Yves (ed.). Alexandrina 4: en l'honneur de Mervat Seif el-Din. Études Alexandrines, 32. Alexandrie: Centre d'Études Alexandrines, 2014. 396 p. € 40.00. ISBN 9782111298552.

*Fratantuono, Lee (ed., comm.). Ovid: Metamorphoses X. Bloomsbury Latin texts. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2014. ix, 276 p. $25.95 (pb). ISBN 9781472522900.

*Garnsey, Peter and Richard Saller. The Roman empire: economy, society and culture. Second edition (first published 1987). London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2014. xviii, 328 p. (pb). ISBN 9781472524027.

*Geller, Markham J. Melothesia in Babylonia: medicine, magic, and astrology in the ancient Near East. Science, technology, and medicine in ancient cultures, 2. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xii, 100 p. € 69.95. ISBN 9781614517757.

*Gorman, Robert J. and Vanessa B. Gorman. Corrupting luxury in ancient Greek literature. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. viii, 484 p. $60.00 (pb). ISBN 9780472052295.

*Griffin, Michael (trans.). Olympiodorus: Life of Plato and On Plato First Alcibiades 1-9. Ancient commentators on Aristotle. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2015. ix, 246 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781472588302.

*Guillaumin, Jean-Yves (ed., trans.). Les Arpenteurs romains, Tome III: Commentaire anonyme sur Frontin. Collection des univertsités de France. Série latine, 408. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. xlvii, 159 p. € 53.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251014685.

**Howard-Johnston, James. Historical writing in Byzantium. Kieler Felix-Jacoby -Vorlesungen, Bd 1. Heidelberg: Verlag Antike, 2014. 73 p. € 28.90. ISBN 9783938032725.

*Instituto de Historia, Universidad Católica de Valparaiso (ed.). Semanas de estudios romanos, Volumen XVI, 2013 (In memoriam Claude Nicolet, F. W. Walbank). Valparaiso: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaiso, 2013. 441 p. (pb). ISSN 0716-6214.

*Kotlińska-Toma, Agnieszka. Hellenistic tragedy: texts, translations and a critical survey. Bloomsbury classical studies monographs. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2015. xvi, 322 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781472524218.

*Lachenaud, Guy and Marianne Bonnefond-Coudry (edd., trans., comm.). Dion Cassius. Histoire romaine, Livres 36 & 37. Collection des universités de France. Série grecque, . Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. lxxxi, 202 p. € 57.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251005942.

*Perdue, Leo G. and Warren Carter. Israel and empire: a postcolonial history of Israel and early Judaism (edited by Coleman A. Baker). London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2015. x, 328 p. $39.95 (pb). ISBN 9780567243287.

*Perucchi, Giulia (ed., trans., comm.). Petrarca e le arti figurative: De remediis utriusque Fortune, I 37-42. Materiali per l'edizione nazionale delle opere di Francesco Petrarca, 4. Firenze: Casa Editrice Le Lettere, 2014. 327 p. € 35.00 (pb). ISBN 9788860878748.

**Proscurcin Junior, Pedro. Der Begriff ηθος bei Homer: Beitrag zu einer philosophischen Interpretation. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. x, 312 p. € 55.00. ISBN 9783825363390.

**Ruschenbusch, Eberhard. Kleine Schriften zur Alten Geschichte (herausgegeben von Jörn Kobes). Philippika, 65. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. xiv, 464 p. € 78.00. ISBN 9783447101103.

*Sarullo, Giulia. Il Carmen Saliare: indagini filologiche e riflessioni linguistiche. Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 117. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xiv, 432 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110400441.

**Schibille, Nadine. Hagia Sophia and the Byzantine aesthetic experience. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. xii, 282 p. $119.95. ISBN 9781472437587.

*Seibert, Simone. Ovids verkehrte Exilwelt: Spiegel des Erzählers - Spiegel des Mythos - Spiegel Roms. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 335. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 309 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110378894.

*Sirkel, Riin, Martin Tweedale, John Harris and Daniel King (trans.). Philoponus: On Aristotle categories 1-5; Philoponus: A treatise concerning the whole and the parts. Ancient commentators on Aristotle. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2015. vi, 221 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781472584106.

*Sorabji, Richard. Moral conscience through the ages: fifth century BCE to the present. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. ix, 265 p. $35.00. ISBN 9780226182728.

**Steckel, Sita, Niels Gaul and Michael Grünbart (edd.). Networks of learning: perspectives on scholars in Byzantine East and Latin West, c. 1000-1200. Byzantinistische Studien und Texte, Bd 6. Münster; Berlin; Wien; Zürich; London: Lit Verlag, 2014. 392 p. € 34.90. ISBN 9783643904577.

*Toner, Jerry. The day Commodus killed a rhino: understanding the Roman games. Witness to ancient history. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2014. 136 p. $19.95 (pb). ISBN 9781421415864.

**Walde, Christine and Georg Wöhrle (edd.). Gender Studies in den Altertumswissenschaften: Schlaf und Traum. Iphis, 6. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 186 p. € 24.50 (pb). ISBN 9783868215625.

*Zambon, Alessia. Aux origines de l'archéologie en Grèce Fauvel et sa méthode. L'art et l'essai, 14. Paris: CTHS: Institut national d'histoire de l'art, 2014. 345 p., xxxii p. of plates. €36.00 (pb). ISBN 9782735508228.

*Zimmermann, Bernhard and Antonios Rengakos (edd.). Handbuch der griechischen Literatur der Antike, Band 2: Die Literatur der klassischen und hellenistischen Zeit. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 7.2. München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 2014. xxxiv, 1129 p. € 138.00. ISBN 9783406618185.

*Acerbi, Fabio and Bernard Vitrac (edd., trans., comm.). Héron d'Alexandrie, Metrica: introduction, texte critique, traduction française et notes de commentaire. Mathematica graeca antiqua, 4. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2014. 712 p. € 220.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862276726.

*Anderson, Mark. Plato and Nietzsche: their philosophical art. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. x, 225 p. $112.00. ISBN 9781472522047.

*Biddau, Federico (ed.). Die geheimen Mächte hinter der Rechtschreibung: Erfahrungen im Vergleich. Akten der internationalen Tagung (Mainz, 28. - 29.02.2012) = L' ortografia e i suoi poteri forti: esperienze a confronto. Atti del convegno internazionale (Magonza, 28-29 febbraio 2012). Frankfurt am Main; Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Wien: Peter Lang, 2013. 169 p. CHF 49.00. ISBN 9783631634974.

*Blösel, Wolfgang, Winfried Schmitz, Gunnar Seelentag and Jan Timmer. Grenzen politischer Partizipation im klassischen Griechenland. Alte Geschichte. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 124 p. € 36.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515108973.

*Bonet, Valérie. La pharmacopée végétale d'Occident dans l'œuvre de Pline l'Ancien. Collection Latomus, 346. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus, 2014. 513 p. € 73.00 (pb). ISBN 9782870312933.

*Burgersdijk, Diederik, Wouter Henkelman and Willemijn Waal (edd.). Alexander en Darius: de Macedoniër in de spiegel van het Nabije Oosten. Zenobiareeks, 1. Hilversum: Verloren, 2013. 267 p. (pb). ISBN 9789087043834.

*Chandezon, Christophe and Julien Du Bouchet (edd.). Artémidore de Daldis et l'interprétation des rêves. Quatorze études. L'âne d'or. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. 475 p. € 39.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251420530.

*Elsner, Jaś and Michel Meyer (edd.). Art and rhetoric in Roman culture. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xxii, 504 p. $115.00. ISBN 9781107000711.

*Holzberg, Niklas (ed., trans.). Publius Ovidius Naso, Liebesgedichte / Amores: lateinisch-deutsch. 2., verbesserte und erweiterte Auflage (first published 1999). Sammlung Tusculum. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. 274 p. € 39.95. ISBN 9783110363722.

*Jacobs, Bruno (ed.). "Parthische Kunst": Kunst im Partherreich. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums in Basel, 9. Oktober 2010. Duisburg: Wellem Verlag, 2014. 183 p. € 59.00. ISBN 9783941820043.

*Mantzilas, Dimitris (ed., trans., comm.). Τίτου Μάκκιου Πλαύτου, Το "στοιχειωμένο" σπίτι (Mostellaria). Ioannina: Carpe Diem, 2014. 800 p. (pb).

*Mercuri, Laurence, Ricardo González Villaescusa and Frédérique Bertonicello (edd.). Implantations humaines en milieu littoral Méditerranéen: facteurs d'installation et processus d'appropriation de l'espace (Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen Âge). Actes des XXXIVe rencontres internationales d'archéologie et d'histoire d'Antibes. Antibes: Éditions APDCA, 2014. 442 p. € 35.00 (pb). ISBN 2904110542.

*Paton, W. R. and Michael A. Tueller (trans.; rev.). The Greek anthology, Volume I: Books 1-5. Loeb Classical Library, 67. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. xli, 435 p. $26.00. ISBN 9780674996885.

*Pelling, Christopher and Maria Wyke. Twelve voices from Greece and Rome: ancient ideas for modern times. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xiv, 274 p. $29.95. ISBN 9780199597369.

*Pérez-Jean, Brigitte and Frédéric Fauquier (edd., trans., comm.). Maxime de Tyr: Choix de conférences religion et philosophie. La roue à livres, 70. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. 162 p. € 25.50 (pb). ISBN 9782251339740.

*Porter, Benjamin W. and Alexis T. Boutin (edd.). Remembering the dead in the ancient Near East: recent contributions from bioarchaeology and mortuary archaeology. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2014. xv, 261 p. $70.00. ISBN 9781607323242.

*Requena Jiménez, Miguel. Omina mortis / Presagios de muerte: cuando los dioses abandonan al emperador romano. Lecturas, serie historia. Madrid: Abada Editores, 2014. 326 p. € 19.00 (pb). ISBN 9788415289982.

*Rufin Solas, Aliénor (ed.). Armées grecques et romaines dans le nord des Balkans. Akanthina, 7. Gdańsk; Toruń: Fondation Traditio Europae, 2013. 229 p. £ 45.00. ISBN 9788393655809.

*Salomons, R. P. P. Cair. Preis.2. Papyrologica Bruxellensia, 35. Bruxelles: Association Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth, 2014. ix, 120 p. € 35.00 (pb). ISBN 9782960083415.

**Schmitz, Winfried. Die griechische Gesellschaft: eine Sozialgeschichte der archaischen und klassischen Zeit. Alte Geschichte Forschung - AGF. Heidelberg: Verlag Antike, 2014. 304 p. € 29.90 (pb). ISBN 9783938032770.

*Singor, Henk. Sicilie in de Oudheid: de Griekse periode. Zenobiareeks, 2. Hilversum: Verloren, 2013. 143 p. (pb). ISBN 9789087043865.

*Suerbaum, Werner (ed.). La littérature de l'époque archaïque (des origines à la mort de Sylla): la période prélittéraire et l'époque de 240 à 78 av. J.-C. Nouvelle histoire de la littérature latine (traduction français du Handbuch der Lateinischen Literatur der Antike, édité par Reinhart Herzog et Peter Lebecht Schmidt), 1. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2014. xlvi, 652 p. € 120.00. ISBN 9782503518367.

*Van Maanen, Willem and Marco Poelwijk. Dodenlijst: Appianus en Cassius Dio over de verschrikkingen van de proscripties. Zenobiareeks, 3. Hilversum: Verloren, 2014. 84 p. (pb). ISBN 9789087044923.

*Vogel, Monika. Ter quinque volumina: Zahlenperiphrase in der lateinischen Dichtung von ihren Anfängen bis ins zweite Jahrhundert n. Chr. Orbis antiquus, Bd 46. Münster: Aschendorff Verlag, 2014. xii, 683 p. € 86.00 (pb). ISBN 9783402144480.

*Wöhrle, Georg and Richard McKirahan (ed.; rev., trans.). The Milesians: Thales (translation and additional material by Richard McKirahan). Traditio Praesocratica, 1. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. vi, 710 p. € 169.95. ISBN 9783110315103.

(read complete article)

Thursday, February 26, 2015

2015.02.54

Michael Geiger, Gallienus. Frankfurt am Main, Bern: Peter Lang, 2013. Pp. 433. ISBN 9783653036510. $87.95.

Reviewed by William F. Metcalf, Yale University (william.metcalf@yale.edu)

Version at BMCR home site

Table of Contents

This work began life as a dissertation presented at the University of Augsburg, and although the author claims (5) to have reworked and shortened it, it betrays its origins, particularly in the number and extent of the footnotes. It begins with a general introduction, with a paragraph or two devoted to each of several major cruces in the reign of Gallienus, followed by a brief history of modern scholarship and views of the emperor (1-27). There follows a treatment of the sources, broken down into literary sources from the 3rd century, the 4th and 5th, and the 6th and after, going all the way through the Suda, Leo Grammaticus, Kedrenus, Zonaras, and the "Synopsis Sathas." It is acknowledged that the serious discussions of Gallienus begin with the more canonical Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Pseudo-Aurelius Victor, Zosimus and Zonaras, in addition to the Historia Augusta (61).1 The few epigraphic sources are mentioned, as well as the papyrological ones; of the latter it is remarked that they are particularly valuable during the sole reign of Gallienus, as providing the dates of, for example, the rise of the Macriani and the death of Gallienus. Numismatic sources are cited as well, and it has to be said that in the appreciation of the significance of coins some better literature in English is omitted in favor of German-language treatments.2

A systematic approach to the problems of the reign is followed throughout. The book breaks down this way:

1 Introduction
2 Sources
3 The family
4 "Ereignisgeschichte"
5 The coinage
6 The development of Gallienus' portrait
7 Gallienus' philhellenism
8 Persecution of the Christians
9 Salonina
10 Economic development and price increases in the time of Gallienus
11 Developments in military and provincial administration
12 Summary
13 Bibliography
14 Abbreviations
15 Index of persons
16 Illustrations of coins

The table of contents for Section 2 occupies about a page, section 4 more than a page, 11 about half a page of subheadings. There are over 200 headings and subheadings in the book, meaning that (bibliography apart) less than 2 pages are devoted to each. The sense of fragmentation is overwhelming, and the reader is challenged to determine which problems are important, which not; which may rely on existing work, which are dealt with anew. Chapters 5 and 6 are not properties of a biography at all, and both are derivative to an extent that would have permitted their incorporation in the text. Chapter 5 starts with consideration of the chronology; here Göbl's Moneta Imperii Romani vols. 26, 43 and 44 (Vienna, 2000, but based on his 1950 dissertation) is cited throughout, an unfortunate choice since the work is eccentric in presentation and arrangement and adheres to a questionable methodology; still, its chronology is not far from that of more modern studies. Chapter 6, on portraiture, adheres quite strictly to the chronologies of Fittschen and Bergmann, and once again might have been incorporated in the text rather than treated separately.

As the Table of Contents shows, the book is not a biography, and indeed it is questionable whether a biography could be written. It is difficult enough to write the history of Gallienus' times, and the perception of a personality depends upon sources that are either exiguous (Dexippus, Sybilline Oracle), distant in time (Orosius, Aurelius Victor and pseudo-Aurelius Victor), partly fictional (Historia Augusta), biased, or some combination of all of these. These are not much different from the challenges facing the biographer of any Roman emperor, but in other cases there is more ancillary material to confirm or modify the picture drawn by the sources. Here this is almost entirely lacking (see section 2.2, which occupies two pages, on epigraphical sources; section 2.3, less than a page, on papyri).

The book has no index of places, and would benefit from an index locorum, which would no doubt demonstrate the heavy use of the Historia Augusta. The bibliography is thorough and would have benefited from being more analytical.

All in all, this book is adequate as a guide to the source material, but would have benefited from a more critical approach to the sources and deeper inquiry into the non-literary evidence. It will be useful to the student just starting out in the study of this period, but there is little here for the specialist.



Notes:


1.   The inclusion of these later sources leads to their misuse, since frequently they are used as testimonia. For example, at 75 the birth of Gallienus is given as 218 on the basis of evidence provided by (Pseudo-) Aurelius Victor, Malalas, the Synopsis Sathas, where either or both of the latter two may be dependent on the first. There is nothing implausible about the date given, and it has been universally accepted, but it rests on fragile evidence.
2.   I do not know where the author went to make up his list of mints active under Valerian and Gallienus, but the presence on it of both Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis) and Samosata (68) would raise some eyebrows.

(read complete article)

2015.02.53

Michael J. Taylor, Antiochus the Great. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military, 2013. Pp. xviii, 190. ISBN 9781848844636. $39.95.

Reviewed by Filippo Canali De Rossi, Liceo Classico Dante Alighieri (canali.filippo@libero.it)

Version at BMCR home site

Preview

Il libro è una biografia di Antioco III inserita nella storia della dinastia dei Seleucidi, a partire dal fondatore Seleuco I Nicatore fino agli ultimi epigoni. È la storia di un grande impero sovranazionale e delle strategie messe in atto per la sua creazione e successiva espansione, conservazione e difesa della sua esistenza.

Nel primo capitolo l'autore traccia un panorama della estensione territoriale del dominio di Antioco III, e ne fa risalire la genesi al fondatore Seleuco I che, insediatosi nella satrapia di Babilonia dopo la uccisione del reggente Perdicca, ne fu cacciato dal nuovo aspirante al dominio universale Antigono. Seleuco, rifugiatosi presso Tolemeo, contribuì alla vittoria su Demetrio Poliorcete a Gaza e, con l'aiuto del sovrano lagide, riuscì a reimpadronirsi di Babilonia. Una rottura nell'asse con Tolemeo intervenne nel momento in cui quest'ultimo, assente nella battaglia di Ipso vinta dalla coalizione dei diadochi su Antigono, ne approfittò per impadronirsi della Celesiria, che resterà attraverso le generazioni un motivo di contesa fra le dinastie. Seleuco, da parte sua, provvedeva ad assicurarsi sul confine orientale tramite un accordo con il sovrano maurya Chandragupta, che gli fornì 500 elefanti in cambio di concessioni territoriali.

La storia delle successive generazioni passa attraverso la figura della regina Stratonice, figlia del Poliorcete, la cui mano venne ceduta da Seleuco al figlio Antioco I. Dopo la vittoria di Seleuco I su Lisimaco e la morte ad opera del traditore Tolemeo Cerauno, il regno passò definitivamente sulle spalle del rampollo Antioco I. Questi si guadagnò un credito personale grazie alla vittoria sui Galati, ai quali impose lo stanziamento in una zona circoscritta dell'Asia minore. Suo figlio Antioco II, succedutogli attorno al 261 a.C.1 indebolì il regno con una imprudente politica matrimoniale, passando dall'unione con la cugina Laodice a quella con la principessa egiziana Berenice.

Alla morte di Antioco II, avvenuta nel 246 a.C., vi fu la presa del potere da parte di Seleuco II, figlio avuto dalla prima moglie Laodice, e la conseguente invasione del regno da parte di Tolemeo III per difendere i diritti del nipote, figlio della seconda moglie Berenice. Intanto la rivolta dei satrapi della Partia e della Battriana, Andragora e Diodoto, preludeva alla formazione di regni orientali indipendenti. Un altro elemento di sofferenza nel regno di Seleuco II fu la rivolta del fratello Antioco Ierace in Asia minore. Da Seleuco II nacque il nostro Antioco, che succederà al breve regno del fratello maggiore Seleuco III (226-223 a.C.), deceduto nel tentativo di sloggiare dall'Asia minore Attalo I di Pergamo.

Dopo una disamina sullo stato del regno alla accessione di Antioco III, l'autore passa in rassegna i principali eventi storici del suo dominio, a cominciare (capitolo II) dalla usurpazione di Molone, satrapo della Media. A questa si associò la rivendicazione di indipendenza di Acheo cugino di Antioco, cui era affidata l'Asia minore, e la guerra contro Attalo di Pergamo. In tale frangente Antioco III venne però indotto dall'interessato consigliere Ermia ad occuparsi soltanto della guerra contro Tolemeo per la Celesiria. Inizialmente pertanto Molone colse alcuni successi sui generali incaricati di condurre la guerra, ma una volta venuto a capo degli intrighi di corte, Antioco III mosse personalmente contro Molone, sbaragliandone l'esercito ed inducendolo al suicidio.

Instaurata una tregua con il cugino Acheo (i cui soldati si erano rifiutati di seguirlo in una impresa contro il re), Antioco fu libero di affrontare con decisione la contesa con l'Egitto, iniziando con la riconquista di Seleucia Pieria. L'autore pertanto, che oltre ad avere una esperienza accademica ha anche militato con l'esercito americano in Kosowo, Kuwait ed Iraq, passa in rassegna le istituzioni, e soprattutto le forze militari a disposizione di Antioco III in questo momento cruciale (cap. III). Lo sforzo bellico condotto contro Tolemeo IV, anch'egli da poco succeduto al trono, culminò nella battaglia di Raphia del 217 a.C. (cap. IV), per la quale il re egiziano per la prima volta aveva reclutato un largo contingente di nativi, decisivo nella risoluzione dello scontro. La pace che seguì lasciava però Antioco in possesso di Seleucia Pieria ed egli si volse così ad affrontare l'usurpazione del cugino (cap. V), che venne assediato nella sua capitale Sardi, fino a che la città venne espugnata con un colpo di mano e lo stesso Acheo mutilato e decapitato.

Il capitolo VI è dedicato alla cosiddetta anabasi di Antioco III, la spedizione verso le alte satrapie del suo regno, intrapresa nel 212 a.C. Essa, attraverso una serie di tappe intermedie (Armenia, Media, Partia), lo portò ad affrontare l'usurpatore greco della Battriana, Eutidemo. Un ambasciatore inviato da quest'ultimo al campo di Antioco ebbe modo tuttavia di presentare il dominio di Eutidemo come vantaggioso per Antioco: questi a sua volta promise in moglie al futuro sovrano della Battriana, Demetrio, una delle sue figlie. Ultima tappa della spedizione orientale fu l'incontro con Sofagaseno, erede della dinastia Maurya di Chandragupta ed Asoka, il quale concesse ad Antioco una nuova fornitura di elefanti. Infine nel ritorno Antioco ebbe occasione di visitare alcune località del golfo Persico, fra cui Gerrha. Nell'insieme la spedizione rinforzò la posizione del sovrano procurandogli, in imitazione di Alessandro, l'appellativo di 'Grande'.

Antioco era così pronto ad affrontare la sfida con i Romani, già vincitori del suo collega macedone Filippo, sfida che avrebbe deciso il destino del suo regno (cap. VII). Prima che si arrivasse ad una dichiarazione di guerra, i due stati navigarono a lungo in uno stato di latente ostilità (la cosiddetta 'pace infida'), dovuta alla esistenza, vera o presunta, di un patto segreto fra Antioco III e Filippo V di Macedonia per dividersi le spoglie del dominio dei Tolemei, approfittando della immatura età del nuovo sovrano Tolemeo V. Antioco assistette perciò da spettatore interessato alla guerra dei Romani con Filippo e, attraverso un gioco di scambi diplomatici,2 cercò di mettere piede in Europa senza lasciarsi intimorire dai Romani, a loro volta sollecitati da alcune città d'Asia a garantirne la libertà dalla ingerenza seleucide.

A scatenare senz'altro la guerra fu l'iniziativa presa dagli Etoli di invitare Antioco in Grecia, da poco sgomberata dalle forze di Flaminino, invito al quale il re né si sottrasse, né si presentò con forze adeguate (cap. VIII). Insediatosi nella città euboica di Calcide, Antioco III indulse poi a nuove nozze con la figlia di un notabile locale e, presentandosi di fatto come il successore di un esautorato Filippo, rese gli estremi onori alle ossa lasciate insepolte dei caduti macedoni di Cinoscefale. La guerra venne poi risolta in Grecia dalla battaglia delle Termopili, ed ebbe un seguito in Asia, preceduto dagli scontri navali di Side, Cisso, Mionneso. Lo sbarco dei Romani in Asia fu accompagnato da trattative, in cui Antioco III si mostrava ora pronto a concedere ai Romani le loro richieste iniziali, inclusa la liberazione di alcune città, mentre il console Lucio Scipione e suo fratello Publio esigevano l'evacuazione di tutta l'Asia minore al di qua del Tauro.

Pertanto, rifiutando Antioco tali condizioni si addivenne allo scontro finale presso Magnesia al Sipilo (cap. IX): la descrizione della battaglia da parte dell'autore è molto dettagliata, con la presentazione dei luoghi e delle forze in campo. Probabilmente la disfatta ebbe inizio dal movimento disordinato di alcuni elefanti che scompigliò la falange macedone, esponendola all'assalto delle legioni, cosicché, a detta di Livio, le perdite risultarono in oltre 50.000 uomini dell'esercito seleucidico contro poche centinaia di Romani. In seguito alla battaglia, attraverso una serie di intermediari, nuovamente Antioco intavolò trattative con Scipione in Apamea, da cui scaturirono severe condizioni di pace, che includevano la consegna dei consiglieri etoli e, in particolare, del cartaginese Annibale.

Antioco poté conservare il suo regno e cercò di rafforzarlo come poteva, incontrandò però difficoltà finanziarie alle quali si sforzò di rimediare attingendo alle risorse templari. Durante uno di questi tentativi, nel 187 a.C. egli venne assassinato in Elam, all'età di 53 anni. Segue un capitolo in cui l'autore descrive i successivi eventi della dinastia, nei quali erano destinate ad avere peso le trame intessute da Roma, dove alcuni dei futuri sovrani seleucidi a lungo dimorarono come ostaggi, in conseguenza degli accordi di Apamea.

Si tratta, come si può vedere, di un libro denso di avvenimenti e di altre notizie, qui riassunte solo in maniera parziale, che l'autore narra in uno stile avvincente, senza imporre ai fatti una visione marcatamente ideologica della storia. Il libro è corredato da una serie di illustrazioni in bianco e nero stampate su carta lucida e presenta una serie di carte geografiche (pure in bianco e nero) ed alcune appendici dinastiche e cronologiche. Sia per la veste che per il taglio narrativo, il libro appare indirizzato ad un pubblico di lettori colti piuttosto che ad un ambito specialistico di ricerca.3 Non mancano però saggi di analisi più approfondita (in particolare per quanto riguarda la storia militare, nella quale anche editorialmente il libro si iscrive) e riferimenti alla bibliografia più recente.4 Accanto alla ricchezza degli aspetti informativi dobbiamo però anche lamentare una certa sciattezza linguistica ed editoriale,5 che si manifesta in particolare nella grafia dei nomi antichi,6 ma anche in alcune sviste di ordine storico.7



Notes:


1.   Taylor (p. 161) anticipa l'accessione di Antioco II al 264 a.C., ma non trovo riscontri per questa data.
2.   Rinvio alla mia recente trattazione in Le relazioni diplomatiche di Roma, IV. Dalla 'liberazione della Grecia' alla pace infida con Antioco III (201-194 a.C.), Roma 2014.
3.   L'autore evidenzia questa scelta rimandando gli specialisti all'opera in tedesco di H.H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Grossen und seiner Zeit, 1964.
4.   J. Ma, Antiochus III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, Oxford 1999 è citato a p. 71. L'opera di Aperghis sulla economia seleucidica è citata in maniera diversa nel testo (p. 50 e n. 36: G.G. Aphergis, Seleucid Economy) e nella bibliografia (p. 184: Makis Aperghis, Seleukid Economy).
5.   Alcune espressioni in lingua inglese sembrano viziate da errori tipografici: p. 101: according to an inscription from King Antiochus to Ilium; p. 127: the pleb(e)ian consul; p. 128: it would brought the total number; p. 149: all grievances are (to) be submitted; p. 159: he was stood triumphant; p. 157: every private household (was) filled with gloom.
6.   P. 18: Politeia, non Politikon; p. 29: Ct(e)siphon; p. 37: BASILEW(S) ; p. 40: Ptolem(ai)c; p. 57, 67, 68, 87: Sosib(i)us; p. 74: Anaiti(s); p. 77: S(y)r(i)nx; p. 77: Hectambylos = Hecatompylos? P. 78, 145: archi(e)re(u)s; p. 82: Mayaran = Maurya?; p. 82: Sophag(a)senus; p. 83: Dra(n)giana; p. 92: Aetoli[e]an; p. 99: Is(t)hm(i)an; p. 107: Flamini(n)us; p. 110: Philopoem(e)n; p. 122: A[n]thamanian; p. 132: Semp[e]ronius; p. 152: Pharn(a)ces; p. 152, 153: Philomet(o)r; p. 153: Popilius Laen(a)s; p. 156: Her(a)clides; p. 157: la grafia Mithradites mi sembra inusuale.
7.   A p. 19, l'autore attribuisce a Cartagine (piuttosto che alla iniziativa personale di Annibale) lo sforzo bellico intrapreso contro Roma. A p. 83-84 egli sostiene che Antioco avrebbe popolato Antiochia in Perside con coloni della Tessaglia, ma nel documento (anche in Iscrizioni dello Estremo Oriente Greco, nr. 252) si parla espressamente solo di Magnesia al Meandro. Della legazione inviata dai Romani ad Antioco III (p. 92) nulla sappiamo circa l'arrivo ad Antiochia; cfr. ora Le relazioni IV cit., nr. 808; i legati non avevano facoltà di proclamare Antioco 'amico ed alleato del popolo Romano': sarà un pronunciamento del senato (ibid. nr. 889) a farlo. P. 99: la proclamazione ai giochi Istmici è dell'anno 196 a.C.; p. 102 chiaramente Ptolemy è una svista per Philip; p. 109: Demetrio era il figlio più giovane di Filippo, non il più anziano. P. 123: le Termopili lasciavano al passaggio non poche centinaia ma solo pochi metri. P. 140: comandante delle legioni romane a Magnesia fu il legato Gneo Domizio (console del 192 a.C.) piuttosto che Lucio Scipione. P. 153: la commissione era di dieci (non dodici) legati.

(read complete article)

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

2015.02.52

Charikleia Armoni, Das Archiv der Taricheuten Amenneus und Onnophris aus Tanis (P.Tarich). Abhandlungen der Nordrhein-Westfälischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Künste, Sonderreihe Papyrologica Coloniensia, 37. Paderborn; München; Wien; Zürich: Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, 2013. Pp. vii, 129. ISBN 9783506779342. €16.90 (pb).

Reviewed by Marja Vierros, University of Helsinki (marja.vierros@helsinki.fi)

Version at BMCR home site

Table of Contents

This book is an edition of 18 papyri written in the Arsinoite nome of Hellenistic Egypt between ca. 189–184 BCE. One of the texts was written in Demotic Egyptian (edited by H.-J. Thissen in this volume) and the rest were written in Greek and are edited by Armoni. The texts deal with a dispute among embalmers (taricheutai) over the privilege of performing their occupation in the village of Philadelpheia. The papyri of the dossier present the point of view of two (occasionally three) embalmers from the village of Tanis. Their opponents are three embalmers in Philadelpheia. The case concerns the geras (right, privilegium) to collect and/or salt bodies (the exact contents of the duties of the taricheutai are not known) previously held by a certain Psenephmus, son of Paos, who had died during the Great Revolt, apparently while taking part in the mutiny (at least that is what the case is built upon). The papyri in question place us in the middle of a period of unrest in Hellenistic Egypt, the so-called Great Revolt of Haronnophris and Chaonnophris1 which began in the last year of Ptolemy IV Philopator (206/205) in the South and continued for 20 years. The texts are mostly petitions to officials, but there is also, e.g., correspondence between officials (text 12). These texts are an important addition to our knowledge of legal disputes, especially because we have several related petitions spanning many years. There is also some insinuation of bribery, and the embalmers spend some time in prison.

Armoni starts with 27 pages of introduction, where she discusses the contents of the texts, persons involved, and different officials attested as well as the Great Revolt. The author's expertise in Hellenistic administration is an asset in this discussion. Some of the officials are known: the dioiketes Bakchon (only attested twice before); a certain Ptolemaios carrying the court title τῶν φίλων, probably the strategos of Arsinoites; and the epimeletai Alexandros and Argeios. Previously unknown officials appear as well e.g. the epimeletes Hephaistion and the royal scribe Petosiris. A new official title is also attested: a certain Drimylos carried the title ὁ πρὸς τῶι παρασφραγισμῶι. He resided in Krokodilon polis. The title implies participation in sealing, and Armoni suggests that he had jurisdiction over imprisonment. Another police official is archiphylakites Demetrios, a previously unattested holder of that position.

The petitions are addressed to many different people, but they all seem to be connected to the court of chrematistai (the judges handling Greek cases, as opposed to the laokritai, the Egyptian judges). Armoni discusses the officials (πρὸς τῆι ἐπιμελείαι τῶν χρηματιστῶν and εἰσαγωγεύς) and the court to some extent, but does not discuss why the court of chrematistai (and, as a consequence, the Greek language) is chosen for this matter. Probably this is because the matter of geras belonged to the state and the royal treasury; and thus the embalmers had to write petitions in Greek, even though their names and profession were Egyptian. Therefore the traces of their own language are important. The Demotic text (15) was apparently a draft for a Greek petition, and traces of Demotic are found in the verso of text 14, which itself was a Greek version of a Demotic division contract.

After the introductory chapters the texts follow. The numbers run from 1 to 15, but in three cases there are two versions of the same text (A and B). A photograph of each papyrus is provided at the end of the book (except for 6B verso). All texts have an introduction and a commentary, as well as a translation. The commentaries are thorough and helpful in providing references.

Several of the first petitions from 189–8 are written from prison. In texts 1 and 2 Amenneus and Onnophris are asking to be released because they are being held there for no reason. Text 4 states that five months have passed and they are still in custody. Then there is a gap of two or three years and in 186 we hear of this dispute again: Amenneus and Onnophris are reporting (text 6A and 6B) to the dioiketes that their opponents have profited from the geras without paying a proper price. Apparently the Amnesty Decree of Ptolemy V, published in October 186, began a new phase in the dispute. Amenneus and Onnophris build their case that the property of those who have taken part in the rebellion should be confiscated and treated as adespoton. Therefore the geras should be freely made available to new owners through an auction. After the report (text 6), Onnophris alone sends several petitions, until finally in 184 Amenneus and Onnophris make an offer to buy the geras from the royal treasury (text 10). Then we have a petition complaining how this offer has been treated (text 11) and, most interestingly, some official correspondence (text 12) describing how the matter proceeded after April 184. Text 14 is a contract of division, but it is so fragmentary that we do not have proper dating or the details of what exactly is being divided. The last document in the edition, a Demotic draft of a petition, was also written after April 184 but is too fragmentary to give us details how this dispute ended.

These papyri deal with an intriguing topic and it is good to have this edition in our hands, shedding more light on the turbulent period of the revolt. However, as an editor of primary sources which other scholars (historians and linguists, for example) will later rely on, Armoni has left out some essential data. We are not provided with any information where, when, and how the papyri became a part of the Cologne collection.2 Discussion of how these texts came together and who was likely to be the keeper of the archive would make it easier to decide whether it is valid to call this an archive.3 Armoni does state in the beginning that these documents are drafts. Therefore it seems likely that they were stored together among the personal papers of one of the antagonists. However, the discussion of the grounds on which these papyri are said to be drafts is also lacking.4

Nor is there any discussion of the handwriting. It would be useful to know whether the editor, as the most qualified expert on the texts, thinks that some of the texts were written in the same handwriting; then we could make assumptions on how the drafting and writing processes went and whose language we are dealing with (the photographs make the comparison of hands difficult because the scale is not the same in all of them and you cannot place the pages side by side). The bilingual nature of the dossier makes the texts interesting for a linguist as well as someone studying scribal practices. We seem to have evidence that first a Demotic version was made, then a Greek draft — or even two — before the final version, which was then sent and has not survived. That tells us something about linguistic skills and literacy. Hence it would be good to have the editor's opinion whether some of the texts were written by the same hand.

There is some inconsistency in including the apparatus criticus in the editions. Text 1 does not have an apparatus: the suggested standard forms of words are presented in the commentary. Text 2 contains an apparatus, but not text 3 — and so on. Some hastiness is reflected also in the fact that the lacunae do not contain any estimation of the number of missing letters. Some minor typos exist, but they are not grave: the document number in the last photograph should be 15, not 14, and there are some letters in Greek font in the translation of text 12.

Despite these gaps, this edition is an important contribution both for the legal and administrative history of Hellenistic Egypt as well as for studying scribal practices and language through papyrological archives. One hopes that some of the aspects mentioned above will be discussed in separate studies.



Notes:


1.   See A.-E. Veïsse, Les "revoltes égyptiennes": recherches sur les troubles intérieurs en Égypte du règne de Ptolémée III Evergète à la conquête romaine. Studia Hellenistica 41. Leuven: Peeters 2004.
2.   The inventory numbers (for which a concordance is not provided) are all between 21353–21379, so it seems the papyri were acquired at the same time. It would be interesting to know why some papyri within that inventory number range are not part of this publication.
3.   Later compilation of texts dealing with the same people and subject matter was not necessarily an archive in antiquity. See the discussion on definitions of archives and dossiers in B. Van Beek, "Ancient Archives and Modern Collections. The Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Archives and Collections" in Jaakko Frösén, Tiina Purola, Erja Salmenkivi (eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Papyrology, Helsinki, 1–7 August, 2004. Two vols. Comm. Hum. Litt. 122:1–2. Helsinki: The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters 2007, 1033–1044.
4.   Some of them have another text on the other side, but nine of them do not and for some we even have two versions. And many texts seem to have corrections between the lines. But all this is left to the reader to figure out, and the reader may not have papyrological training.

(read complete article)