Monday, September 1, 2014

2014.09.01

Books Received August 2014.

Version at BMCR home site

This list contains all books available for review this month (only those with asterisks are unassigned; those that appear without
asterisks are already assigned to reviewers). Qualified volunteers should indicate their interest by sending a message to classrev@brynmawr.edu, with their last name and requested author in the subject line. They should state their qualifications (both in the sense of degrees held and in the
sense of experience in the field concerned) and explain any previous relationship with the author or authors. Volunteers are expected to have received their PhDs. Graduate students writing theses will be considered if nominated by a supervisor who agrees in advance to read and approve the review
before submission.

The list of books available for review is sent out by e-mail on or near the first of the following month. This page will not be updated to indicate that books have been assigned. Please consult the updated list of books available for review at http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/booksavailable.html.

**Althoff, Jochen, Sabine Föllinger and Georg Wöhrle (edd.). Antike Naturwissenschaften und ihre Rezeption, Band XXIV. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 186 p. € 24.50. ISBN 9783868215397.

*Ambrosini, Laura and Vincent Jolivet (edd.). Les potiers d'Étrurie et leur monde: contacts, échanges, transferts. Hommages à Mario A. Del Chiaro. Armand Colin - recherches. Paris: Armand Colin, 2014. 488 p., viii p. of plates. € 38.00 (pb). ISBN 9782200287696.

*Amedick, Rita, Heide Froning and Winfried Held (edd.). Marburger Winckelmann-Programm 2014. Marburger Winckelmann-Programm, 2014. Marburg: Eigenverlag des Archäologischen Seminars der Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2014. v, 162 p. € 89.00. ISBN 9783818505134.

Andreatta, Luisa. Il verso docmiaco: fonti e interpretazioni. Bollettino dei Classici. Supplementa, 28. Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 2014. 190 p. € 60.00 (pb). ISBN 9788821810817.

*Avramidou, Amalia and Denise Demetriou (edd.). Approaching the ancient artifact: representation, narrative, and function. A Festschrift in honor of H. Alan Shapiro. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xxv, 590 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110308730.

Bagnall, Roger S., James G. Keenan and Leslie S. B. MacCoull. A sixth-century tax register from the Hermopolite Nome. American studies in papyrology, 51. Durham, NC: American Society of Papyrologists, 2011. 225 p., 4. p. of plates. $50.00. ISBN 9780979975844.

**Bielfeldt, Ruth (ed.). Ding und Mensch in der Antike: Gegenwart und Vergegenwärtigung. Akademiekonferenzen, 16. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. 377 p. € 58.00. ISBN 9783825362744.

Bleckmann, Bruno and Timo Stickler (edd.). Griechische Profanhistoriker des fünften nachchristlichen Jahrhunderts. Historia - Einzelschriften, Bd 228. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 228 p. € 56.00. ISBN 9783515106412.

*Bowditch, P. Lowell (ed., comm.). A Propertius reader: eleven selected elegies. BC Latin readers. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xliv, 186 p. $19.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865167230.

*Burri, Renate. Die "Geographie" des Ptolemaios im Spiegel der griechischen Handschriften. Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 110. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2013. x, 597 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110280166.

**Carlà, Filippo and Gori Maja (edd.). Gift giving and the 'embedded' economy in the ancient world. Akademiekonferenzen, 17. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. 437 p. € 48.00. ISBN 9783825363314.

Chesi, Giulia Maria. The play of words: blood ties and power relations in Aeschylus' Oresteia. Trends in classics - supplementary volumes, 26. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 198 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110334319.

Christian, Kathleen W., Clare E. L. Guest and Claudia Wedepohl (edd.). The Muses and their afterlife in post-classical Europe. Warburg Institute colloquia, 26. London; Turin: Warburg Institute; Nino Aragno Editore, 2014. viii, 300 p. (pb). ISBN 9781908590497.

Cobet, Justus (ed.). Weltwissen vor Kolumbus. Periplus - Jahrbuch für außereuropäische Geschichte 2013, Bd 23. Berlin; Münster: Lit Verlag, 2013. v, 327 p. € 59.90 (pb). ISBN 9783643123572.

*Colesanti, Giulio and Manuela Giordano (edd.). Submerged literature in ancient Greek culture: an introduction. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 229 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110333961.

*Corcilius, Klaus and Dominik Perler (edd.). Partitioning the soul: debates from Plato to Leibniz. Topoi, 22. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. v, 304 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110311808.

*Dalla Rosa, Alberto. Cura et tutela: le origini del potere imperiale sulle province proconsolari. Historia - Einzelschriften, Bd 227. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 362 p. € 68.00. ISBN 9783515106023.

*Davis, Brent. Minoan stone vessels with Linear A inscriptions. Aegaeum, 36. Leuven; Liège: Peeters, 2014. xxiv, 419 p. € 105.00. ISBN 9789042930971.

Dreßler, Jan. Wortverdreher, Sonderlinge, Gottlose: Kritik an Philosophie und Rhetorik im klassischen Athen. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 331. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. viii, 380 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110345513.

*Eneix, Linda C. (ed.). Archaeoacoustics: the archaeology of sound. Publication of the 2014 conference in Malta, including reports from the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum Acoustics Project. Myakka City, FL: OTS Foundation, 2014. 271 p. $49.50 (pb). ISBN 9781497591264.

*France, Jérôme and Jocelyne Nelis-Clément (edd.). La statio: archéologie d'un lieu de pouvoir dans l'empire romain. Scripta antiqua, 66. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2014. 389 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131126.

*George, Coulter H. Expressions of time in ancient Greek. Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. ix, 331 p. $110.00. ISBN 9781107003941.

*Gerousi-Bendermacher, Eugenia. Sepulkralkultur auf der Insel Thera (Santorin): der spätantike Friedhof in Perissa und seine Ausgrabungsfunde unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Tonlampen. Marburger Beiträge zur Archäologie, Bd 1. Marburg: Eigenverlag des Archäologischen Seminars der
Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2013. 221 p. € 98.00. ISBN 9783818505103.

*Goldsworthy, Adrian. Augustus: first emperor of Rome. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2014. ix, 598 p. $35.00. ISBN 9780300178722.

**Guichard, Luis Arturo, Juan Luis García Alonso and María Paz de Hoz (edd.). The Alexandrian tradition: interactions between science, religion, and literature. IRIS, Ricerche di cultura europea = Forschungen zur europäischen Kultur, Bd 28. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014. 324 p. $101.95 (pb).
ISBN 9783034314527.

**Gurtler, Gary M. and William Wians (edd.). Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, vol. XXIX. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. x, 228 p. € 95.00. ISBN 9789004268364.

Hadavas, C. T. (ed., comm.). Lucian, On the death of Peregrinus: an intermediate ancient Greek reader. [Beloit, WI]: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. xxviii, 154 p. $12.95 (pb). ISBN 9781500303099.

*Hall, Jon. Cicero's use of judicial theater. Ann Arnor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. xii, 190 p. $30.00 (pb). ISBN 9780472052202.

*Hammond, Carolyn J.-B. (ed., trans.). Confessions. Volume I: Books 1-8. Loeb Classical Library, 26. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. lxv, 413 p. $26.00. ISBN 9780674996854.

*Hanink, Johanna. Lycurgan Athens and the making of classical tragedy. Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiii, 280 p. $95.00. ISBN 9781107062023.

*Hayes, Evan and Stephen Nimis. Lucian's A true story: an intermediate Greek reader (revised Aug. 2014; first edition 2011). Oxford, OH: Faenum Publishing, 2014. x, 191 p. $13.95 (pb). ISBN 9780983222804.

*Henry, W. B. and P. J. Parsons (edd., trans., comm.). The Oxyrhynchus papyri. Volume LXXIX, [N° 5183-5218]. Graeco-Roman memoirs, 100. London: Egypt exploration society, 2014. x, 220 p.; viii p. of plates. $170.00. ISBN 9780856982194.

*Heßler, Jan Erik (ed., trans., comm.). Epikur, Brief an Menoikeus: Edition, Übersetzung, Einleitung und Kommentar. Schwabe Epicurea, 4. Basel: Schwabe Verlag, 2014. 378 p. € 24.85. ISBN 9783796532139.

Kalligas, Paul. The Enneads of Plotinus: a commentary, volume 1 (translated by Elizabeth Key Fowden and Nicolas Pilavachi). Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014. xx, 706 p. $85.00. ISBN 9780691154213.

**Kamphausen, Philipp. Die Luciliusausgabe des Franciscus Dousa (1597) in ihrem gelehrten Umfeld. BAC - Bochumer Altertumswissenschaftliches Colloquium, Bd 98. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 446 p. € 46.50. ISBN 9783868215496.

*Keenan, James G., J. G. Manning and Uri Yiftach-Firanko (edd.). Law and legal practice in Egypt from Alexander to the Arab Conquest a selection of papyrological sources in translation, with introductions and commentary. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xxvii,
598 p. $160.00. ISBN 9780521874526.

*Kidd, Stephen E. Nonsense and meaning in ancient Greek comedy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. vi, 208 p. $95.00. ISBN 9781107050150.

Kirby, Christopher C. (ed.). Dewey and the ancients: essays on Hellenic and Hellenistic themes in the philosophy of John Dewey. Bloomsbury studies in American philosophy. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. xxiv, 208 p. $112.00. ISBN 9781472510556.

*Laidlaw, Anne and Marco Salvatore Stella. The House of Sallust in Pompeii (VI 2, 4). JRA supplementary series, 98. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2014. 283 p., 12 p. of plates. $109.00. ISBN 9780991373024.

*Layne, Danielle A. and Harold Tarrant (edd.). The Neoplatonic Socrates. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. vi, 256 p. $75.00. ISBN 9780812246292.

*Mair, Victor H. and Jane Hickman (edd.). Reconfiguring the Silk Road: new research on East-West exchange in antiquity. The papers of a symposium held at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, March 19, 2011. Philadelphia: Published for the University of
Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. xvi, 104 p. $59.95. ISBN 9781934536681.

Massa, Francesco. Tra la vigna e la croce: Dioniso nei discorsi letterari e figurativi cristiani (II-IV secolo). Potsdamer Altertumswissenschaftliche Beiträge, Bd 47. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 325 p. € 62.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515106313.

*Mastrocinque, Attilio. Bona Dea and the cults of Roman women. Potsdamer Altertumswissenschaftliche Beiträge, Bd 49. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 209 p. € 52.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515107525.

*Nelis, Damien and Manuel Royo (edd.). Lire la Ville: fragments d'une archéologie littéraire de Rome antique. Scripta antiqua, 65. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2014. 303 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131157.

*Olivito, Riccardo. Il foro nell'atrio: immagini di architetture, scene di vita e di mercato nel fregio dai Praedia di Iulia Felix (Pompei, II, 4, 3). Bibliotheca Archaeologica, 31. Bari: Edipuglia, 2013. 292 p. € 70.00 (pb). ISBN 9788872287019.

**Papazarkadas, Nikolaos (ed.). The epigraphy and history of Boeotia: new finds, new prospects. Brill studies in Greek and Roman epigraphy, 4. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xiv, 501 p. € 136.00. ISBN 9789004230521.

Pelttari, Aaron. The space that remains: reading Latin poetry in late antiquity. Cornell studies in classical philology. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press, 2014. xi, 190 p. $49.95. ISBN 9780801452765.

*Petrain, David. Homer in stone: the Tabulae Iliacae in their Roman context. Greek culture in the Roman world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiii, 260 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107029811.

*Polla, Silvia and Philip Verhagen (edd.). Computational approaches to the study of movement in archaeology: theory, practice and interpretation of factors and effects of long term landscape formation and transformation. Topoi, 23. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. v, 137 p. € 79.95.
ISBN 9783110288315.

*Rapelli, Giovanni. Il latino dei primi secoli (IX-VII a.C.) e l'etrusco. ItaliAteneo. Roma: Società Editrice Romana, 2013. x, 229 p. € 18.00 (pb). ISBN 9788889291214.

*Rapp, Claudia and H. A. Drake (edd.). The city in the classical and post-classical world: changing contexts of power and identity. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiii, 265 p.; [8] p. of plates. $95.00. ISBN 9781107032668.

Richlin, Amy. Arguments with silence: writing the history of Roman women. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. x, 414 p. $40.00 (pb). ISBN 9780472035922.

*Robinson, Elizabeth C. (ed.). Papers on Italian urbanism in the first millennium B.C.. JRA supplementary series, 97. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2014. 242 p. $99.00. ISBN 9780991373017.

Roller, Duane W. (ed., trans., comm.). The Geography of Strabo: an English translation, with introduction and notes. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xvii, 891 p. $190.00. ISBN 9781107038257.

*Savay-Guerraz, Hugues, Christian Thioc, Jean-Michel Degeule and Marie-Noëlle Baudrand. Le musée gallo-romain de Lyon. Lyon: Fage éditions, 2013. 127 p. € 14.50 (pb). ISBN 9782849753224.

*Schaaf, Ingo. Magie und Ritual bei Apollonios Rhodios: Studien zur Ihrer Form und Funktion in den Argonautika / Ingo Schaaf. Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten, Bd 63. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. viii, 402 p. € 119.95. ISBN 9783110309485.

*Schlosser, Joel Alden. What would Socrates do?: self-examination, civic engagement, and the politics of philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiv, 198 p. $90.00. ISBN 9781107067424.

**Scodel, Ruth (ed.). Between orality and literacy: communication and adaptation in antiquity. Mnemosyne supplements. Monographs on Greek and Latin language and literature, 367. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. ix, 387 p. € 134.00. ISBN 9789004269125.

*Sommerstein, Alan H. and Thomas H. Talboy (trans., comm.). Sophocles: selected fragmentary plays, volume II. The Epigoni, Oenomaus, Palamedes, The arrival of Nauplius, Nauplius and the Beacon, The Shepherds, Triptolemus. Aris & Phillips classical texts. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2012.
vii, 294 p. £ 50.00 (pb). ISBN 9780856688928.

Stachon, Markus. Tractavi monumentum aere perennius: Untersuchungen zu vergilischen und ovidischen Pseudepigraphen. BAC - Bochumer Altertumswissenschaftliches Colloquium, Bd 97. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 376 p. € 39.50. ISBN 9783868215199.

Stocks, Claire. The Roman Hannibal: remembering the enemy in Silius Italicus' Punica. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2014. xii, 276 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781781380284.

*Sykes, Naomi. Beastly questions: animal answers to archaeological issues. New York; London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. xvi, 221 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781472506757.

**Thom, Johan C. (ed.). Cosmic order and divine power: Pseudo-Aristotle, On the cosmos. SAPERE, 23. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014. x, 230 p. € 49.00. ISBN 9783161528095.

*Thommen, Lukas. Die Wirtschaft Spartas. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 191 p. € 39.00. ISBN 9783515106757.

*Torrijos-Castrillejo, David. Anaxágoras y su recepción en Aristóteles. Dissertationes. Series philosophica, 43. Roma: Edizioni Santa Croce, 2014. 528 p. € 26.00 (pb). ISBN 9788883333255.

**Van Dusen, David. The space of time: a sensualist interpretation of time in Augustine, Confessions X to XII. Supplements to the study of time, 6. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xvi, 360 p. € 135.00. ISBN 9789004266865.

Walter, Anke. Erzählen und Gesang im flavischen Epos. Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft: Beihefte N. F., Bd 5. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xi, 393 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110336207.

*Weineck, Silke-Maria. The tragedy of fatherhood: King Laius and the politics of paternity in the West. New directions in German studies, 9. New York; London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. x, 208 p. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 9781628927894.

*Whittaker, Helène. Religion and society in Middle Bronze Age Greece. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiv, 291 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107049871.

**Willms, Lothar. Übersetzung, philologischer Kommentar und vergleichende Interpretation des Tierkreises in Aviens Phaenomena (Verse 1014-1325). AKAN - Einzelschriften, Bd 9. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 152 p. € 23.50. ISBN 9783868215083.

*Zotou, Alexia (ed., comm.). Carmina anacreontea 1-34: ein Kommentar. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 332. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. viii, 206 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110364989.

*Zwierlein, Otto. Die Urfassungen der Martyria Polycarpi et Pionii und das Corpus Polycarpianum (2 vols.). Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 116/1-2. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. xx, 194 p.; xii, 425 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110371000.

Again Available

*Conybeare, Catherine. The laughter of Sarah: biblical exegesis, feminist theory, and the concept of delight. Palgrave pivot. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. xi, 117 p. $67.50. ISBN 9781137373113.

Still Available

**Angelidi, Christina and George T. Calofonos (edd.). Dreaming in Byzantium and beyond. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. xci, 232 p. $119.95. ISBN 9781409400554.

*Arcuri, Rosalba. Moderatio: problematiche economiche e dinamiche sociali nel principato di Tiberio. Antiquitas, 33. Milano: Editoriale Jouvence, 2014. 505 p. € 36.00 (pb). ISBN 9788878014367.

*Baumann, Alexander. Freiheitsbeschränkungen der Dekurionen in der Spätantike. Sklaverei - Knechtschaft - Zwangsarbeit, Bd 12. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 2014. vii, 231 p. € 39.80 (pb). ISBN 9783487151540.

**Bönisch-Meyer, Sophia, Lisa Cordes, Verena Schulz, Anne Wolsfeld and Martin Ziegert (edd.). Nero und Domitian: mediale Diskurse der Herrscherrepräsentation im Vergleich. Classica Monacensia, 46. Tübingen: Narr Verlag, 2014. viii, 485 p. € 88.00. ISBN 9783823368137.

*Bonnekoh, Pamela. Die figürlichen Malereien in Thessaloniki vom Ende des 4. bis zum 7. Jahrhundert. Neue Untersuchungen zur erhaltenen Malereiausstattung zweier Doppelgräber, der Agora und der Demetrios-Kirche. Nea Polis, Bd 1. Oberhausen: ATHENA-Verlag, 2013. 564 p., [80] p. of
plates. € 98.00 (pb). ISBN 9783898965644.

*Cairns, Douglas and Ruth Scodel (edd.). Defining Greek narrative. Edinburgh Leventis studies, 7. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. xii, 380 p. $162.00. ISBN 9780748680108.

**Delattre, Alain and Sarah J. Clackson. Papyrus grecs et coptes de Baouît conservés au musée du Louvre P. Louvre Bawit 1-83. Bibliothèque d'études coptes, 22. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 2014. 183 p. ISBN 9782724706468.

*Dietsche, Uwe. Strategie und Philosophie bei Seneca: Untersuchungen zur therapeutischen Technik in den Epistulae morales. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 329. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. ix, 298 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110349047.

*Ebbesen, Sten'Bloch, David, Jakob Leth Fink, Heine Hansen and Ana María Mora-Márquez. History of philosophy in reverse: reading Aristotle through the lenses of scholars from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. Scientia Danica. Series H, Humanistica, 8, vol. 7; Publications of the
Centre for the Aristotelian Tradition, 3. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2014. 220 p. (pb). ISBN 9788773043790.

*Ewegen, S. Montgomery. Plato's Cratylus: the comedy of language. Studies in Continental thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014. xvii, 227 p. $36.00. ISBN 9780253010445.

*Flower, Harriet I. (ed.). The Cambridge companion to the Roman Republic. Second edition (first edition published 2004). Cambridge companions to the ancient world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xli, 476 p. $42.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107669420.

*Frood, Elizabeth and Rubina Raja (edd.). Redefining the sacred: religious architecture and text in the Near East and Egypt, 1000 BC - AD 300. Contextualizing the sacred, 1. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2014. xx, 260 p. € 80.00. ISBN 9782503541044.

*Galassi, Francis. Catiline, the monster of Rome: an ancient case of political assassination. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2014. xxiii, 187 p. $26.00. ISBN 9781594161964.

*Gasti, Fabio and Fabrizio Bordone (intr.; trans., comm.). Eutropio. Storia di Roma. Grandi classici greci latini. Rusconi Libri, 2014. lviii, 449 p. € 11.90 (pb). ISBN 9788818030235.

*Gillis, Anne-Catherine (ed.). Corps, travail et statut social: l'apport de la paléoanthropologie funéraire aux sciences historiques. Archaiologia. Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2014. 209 p. € 24.00 (pb). ISBN 9782757407677.

*Harter-Uibopuu, Kaja and Thomas Kruse. Sport und Recht in der Antike. Wiener Kolloquien zur Antiken Rechtsgeschichte, 2. Wien: Verlag Holzhausen, 2014. xii, 405 p. € 85.00. ISBN 9783902976147.

*Kolb, Anne (ed.). Infrastruktur und Herrschaftsorganisation im Imperium Romanum. Herrschaftsstrukturen und Herrschaftspraxis III: Akten der Tagung in Zürich 19. - 20.10.2012. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. 279 p. $70.00. ISBN 9783050060316.

*Legarra Herrero, Borja. Mortuary behavior and social trajectories in pe- and protopalatial Crete. Prehistory monographs, 44. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xvii, 359 p.; [100] p. of tables and figures. $80.00. ISBN 9781931534741.

*LeVen, Pauline A. The many-headed muse: tradition and innovation in late classical Greek lyric poetry. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. x, 377 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107018532.

*Ludwig, Kathrin. Charakterfokalisation bei Lucan: eine narratologische Analyse. Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft - Beihefte N.F., Bd 6. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. ix, 304 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110336412.

**Luijendijk, AnneMarie. Forbidden Oracles?: The Gospel of the Lots of Mary. Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum / Studies and texts in antiquity and Christianity, 89. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. xii, 208 p. € 69.00 (pb). ISBN 9783161528590.

*Luque Moreno, Jesús. Hablar y cantar: la música y el lenguaje (concepciones antiguas). Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada, 2014. 476 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9788433856500.

*Maiullari, Franco. Un sogno in scena: come rappresentare l'Edipo Re di Sofocle. Filosofie del teatro, 17. Milano; Udine: Mimesis Edizioni, 2014. 240 p. € 22.00 (pb). ISBN 9788857523033.

*March, Jennifer R. Dictionary of classical mythology (illustrated by Neil Barrett) (second edition; first edition published 1998). Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2014. xiii, 528 p. $49.95 (pb). ISBN 9781782976356.

*Martínez Sariego, Mónica María. Horacio en Alberto Lista: la impronta horaciana en el corpus teórico y en la obra poética de Alberto Lista. Alfar Universidad, 195. Sevilla: Ediciones Alfar, 2014. 184 p. € 13.00 (pb). ISBN 9788478985494.

**Nesselrath, Arnold. Der Zeichner und sein Buch: die Darstellung der antiken Architektur im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Cyriacus. Studien zur Rezeption der Antike, 5. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. 224 p. € 58.00. ISBN 9783447101936.

*Nickel, Rainer (ed., trans.). Antike Kritik an der Stoa: lateinisch, griechisch, deutsch. Sammlung Tusculum. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. 645 p. € 69.95. ISBN 9783050062822.

*Ormand, Kirk. The Hesiodic Catalogue of women and archaic Greece. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. x, 265 p. $90.00. ISBN 9781107035195.

*Peponi, Anastasia-Erasmia (ed.). Performance and culture in Plato's Laws. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. xi, 460 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107016873.

*Platts, Hannah, John Pearce, Caroline Barron, Jason Lundock and Justin Yoo (edd.). TRAC 2013: proceedings of the twenty-third annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference which took place at King's College, London, 4-6 April 2013. Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2014. 173 p.
$60.00 (pb). ISBN 9781782976905.

*Polansky, Ronald (ed.). The Cambridge companion to Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. Cambridge companions to philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xii, 474 p. $36.99 (pb). ISBN 9780521122733.

*Rossitto, Cristina, Alessandra Coppola and Franco Biasutti (edd.). Aristotele e la storia. Ithaca. Padova: CLEUP, 2013. 217 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9788867871506.

*Ruggiu, Luigi. Parmenide: Nostos. L'essere e gli enti. Edizione rivista e ampliata (first published 1975). La scala e l'album, 14. Milano; Udine: Mimesis Edizioni, 2014. 516 p. € 32.00 (pb). ISBN 9788857523811.

*Severy-Hoven, Beth. The Satyrica of Petronius: an intermediate reader with commentary and guided review. Oklahoma series in classical culture, 50. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014. xix, 312 p. $24.95 (pb). ISBN 9780806144382.

**Thür, Gerhard. Grabrituale: Tod und Jenseits in Frühgeschichte und Alterum. Akten der 3. Tagung des Zentrums Archäologie und Altertumswissenschaften an der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Bd 467. Wien: Verlag der
Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2014. 210 p. € 62.00 (pb). ISBN 9783700175803.

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*Worthington, Ian. By the spear: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the rise and fall of the Macedonian Empire. Ancient warfare and civilization. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xxi, 388 p. $34.95. ISBN 9780199929863.

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*Brouwers, Josho. Henchmen of Ares: warriors and warfare in early Greece. Ancient warfare special, 4. Rotterdam: Karwansaray Publishers, 2013. v, 203 p. € 29.95. ISBN 9789490258078.

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*Cerutti, Steven M. (ed., comm.). Cicero: Pro Archia poeta oratio. Third edition. Annotated Latin collection. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xxxi, 157 p. $29.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865168053.

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*Estangüi Gomez, Raul. Byzance face aux Ottomans: exercice du pouvoir et contrôle du territoire sous les derniers Paléologues (milieu XIVe-milieu XVe siècle). Byzantina Sorbonensia 28. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2014. x, 665 p. € 40.00 (pb). ISBN
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**Günther, Linda-Marie. Bürgerinnen und ihre Familien im hellenistischen Milet: Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Frauen und Mädchen in der Polis-Öffentlichkeit. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. vi, 337 p. € 78.00. ISBN 9783447100205.

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*Kruse, Ulf. Ludwig Ross (1806-1859): der Holsteiner und sein Familienkreis. Eine kultur-, wissenschafts- und regionalgeschichtliche Studie. Reihe Geschichte, Bd 6. Düsseldorf: Wellem Verlag, 2014. xiv, 449 p. € 61.00. ISBN 9783941820135.

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*Schwartz, Seth. The ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad. Key themes in ancient history. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xi, 190 p. $29.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107669291.

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(read complete article)

Sunday, August 31, 2014

2014.08.65

Luis Ballesteros Pastor, Pompeyo Trogo, Justino y Mitrídates: Comentario al Epítome de las Historias Filípicas (37,1,6 - 38,8,1). Spudasmata, Bd 154. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2013. Pp. 368. ISBN 9783487150703. €58.00 (pb).

Reviewed by David Braund, University of Exeter
(d.c.braund@exeter.ac.uk)

Version at BMCR home site

Mithridates VI Eupator continues to fascinate and to generate publications of differing quality. This book is among the best to appear in recent decades,
as will be no great surprise to those who follow Mithridatic matters closely. For Ballesteros Pastor has already given us a fine biography of the king (Granada, 1996) and a string of valuable articles about aspects of his reign. All that work has been characterized not only by the close attention
to sources that is basic to ancient history, but also by a desire to understand and appreciate the larger concerns of the ancient authors whose works he seeks to use. Now, in the book under review, we have much of the fruit of this sustained attention to ancient writing about Mithridates,
centred upon Justin’s summary version of historical writing about Mithridates and his time that is ascribed to Trogus.

In terms of structure, the book is familiar and conservative. A short preface is followed by an extended introduction, Justin’s Latin text (a large slice of Books 37 and 38) and a detailed commentary (of a broadly historical nature), keyed to that text. The book closes with an enormous
bibliography and useful indices of names and selected subjects.

However, this is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. The Introduction in particular is extraordinarily broad in scope and rich in detail. In setting the scene for the commentary, its formidable 102 pages offer a coherent vision of the issues at stake by starting with Trogus and Justin and then
leading the reader through a series of attendant topics. From consideration of Armenian and Cappadocian perspectives, we proceed to a valuable discussion of the “prologues” in our text, to the awkward problem of the text’s attitudes to Rome and particular Romans. We are reminded in detail of the
Roman willingness to engage in self-criticism on imperialism and related matters, albeit without threatening the reality of Roman imperialism and often with an eye to damning particular Romans for their supposed deviance from an acceptable imperialist norm. Further, we are given (in all due
caution) an enticing collation of what might be signs of Pontic propaganda in our text along with Sallust’s famous Letter of Mithridates, which might be taken similarly. Then we have a series of knotty chronological problems in connection with Mithridates’ accession, death and more. And
finally a very valuable discussion of Trogus’ influence, as far as it can be traced, in a series of other major authorities on Mithridates, namely Florus, Valerius Maximus, Frontinus, Orosius and Plutarch.

There is a great deal to absorb in this introduction, which is all but a book in its own right. However, the reader is assisted by a very helpful arrangement of topics and array of sub-headings. Indeed, the introduction closes with its own conclusion, recapitulating the outcome of its
wide-ranging discussion. Here we have in a nutshell the main findings of the book, which form the framework for the commentary to follow. There are bold, large hypotheses here, with which this reviewer has a variety of difficulties. However, these hypotheses are grounded in reasoned argument, so
that, even if readers do not feel able to travel all the way with Ballesteros Pastor, they will learn a great deal en route, not least by revisiting assumptions.

The central claims are: 1) Trogus was the author of our text insofar as he adapted a Universal History which had been composed at the court(s) of the rulers of Armenia and Cappadocia. Particular attention is drawn to Tigranes and Archelaus I. In the course of this adaptation, Trogus added
material, particularly as supplied by his elders. Trogus’ work was in turn especially important to Appian and Memnon of Heraclea Pontica. Moreover, (2) Justin has not only abridged Trogus, but has also reworked his text in more fundamental ways (e.g. in his version of Mithridates famous
“harangue”). Justin’s interest (even pride, it is claimed) in Scythians is explained in terms of what Ballesteros Pastor takes to be Justin’s own Scythian identity. By this he means that Justin should be imagined as a citizen of Olbia or another of the cities of the north Black Sea.

Inevitably questions and doubts abound, but one cannot fail to be impressed by Ballesteros Pastor’s ability to pose challenges, asking, for example why Heraclea Pontica gets quite so much attention in our text. Of course, we might prefer to develop arguments along different lines: the
Mithridatic relationship with Scythians, for example, could be seen as enmity or friendship or part of a larger nexus of ideas about culture, civilization and evidence of Mithridatic success. Meanwhile, the Greeks of the northern Black Sea did not usually relish their Scythian connections, still
less take pride in them. Even if we deem Justin to have been himself a Scythian in some sense (and there is no pressing cause to do so), that would be the beginning of our exploration of his concern with Scythians, not the end of the matter. There is also the larger issue of “ethnographic
material” in the text as a whole, from which Scythians cannot be wholly divorced and with which Ballesteros Pastor does not much engage. However, no matter how we choose to proceed, it is useful to ask the question that arises from Ballesteros Pastor’s observation of Scythian prominence in the
text, not to mention the many oddities in its representation of Scythian history. While Ballesteros Pastor is not one for polemics, the great virtues of his work in general and of this book perhaps most clearly are his unwillingness to accept received wisdom uncritically and his own creative
freedom of thought to good purpose. The subsequent commentary is of great value even if one does not follow the author in his larger arguments of the Introduction. We find throughout the commentary a wealth of learned discussion of matters arising from the text, with detailed ancient sources and
up-to-date modern scholarship. All this is done very concisely.

In sum this bold book sheds a great deal of light, while it will probably also generate a certain amount of heat in debate. In either case, such sustained and well-informed attention to this important and tricky text can only be a very good thing. Meanwhile, the learned commentary makes this
book a must for all who seek to use this text with historical or historiographical intent. It is to be hoped that the fact that this fine book has been published in Spanish will not deter too many readers.

(read complete article)

2014.08.64

Johann P. Arnason, Kurt A. Raaflaub, Peter Wagner (ed.), The Greek Polis and the Invention of Democracy: A Politico-Cultural Transformation and its Interpretations. The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. Malden, MA; Oxford; Chichester: Wiley–Blackwell, 2013. Pp. x, 400. ISBN
9781444351064. $139.95.

Reviewed by Alexandra Lianeri, University of Thessaloniki (alelia@lit.auth.gr)

Version at BMCR home site

Preview


This sophisticated volume engages with a constantly reinvented meaning of democracy by means of a complex return to the walls of Athens. On one level, it re-examines Athens from the viewpoint of the relation between democracy and the wider frame of the polis society. It thus explores
concepts, commitments and practices of the polis that encountered dēmokratia and reshaped it by means of opposition and dissent. On the other hand, it returns to Athens from the broader diachronic scope of modern democracy with the intention of challenging the developmental logic leading
from antiquity to the modern democratic paradigm. As the editors point out, when observers consider ancient Greek democracy as a ‘success’ story, they overlook the fact that democratic practices were contested in the past and stand today as a challenging and problematic project rather than a
triumphant finale to history (2).

This enterprise is organized around four distinct sections. In the first, the authors re-assess the Greek experience of democracy from the broader perspectives of historical-comparative sociology and the history of political thought. Johann Arnason takes on Christian Meier’s question of the
emergence of the political in Greece1 as a distinct version of the Axial breakthrough indicating cultural interaction with Near Eastern centres. Against a background centred on the problems, virtues and possibilities of monarchy, the Greek notion of the political involved the shaping
of a polycentric field of conflicts associated with different patternings in diverse polis-regimes. Peter Wagner also enquires about the Greek concept of the political by exploring the trajectory of ancient and modern democracy in the context of the radical transformation of western political
languages between 1770 and 1830. He argues that our relation to dēmokratia is one of conceptual and institutional transformations manifesting a constant element that sustains the modern return to Athens: a ‘democratic political imaginary’ holding that the people rule themselves, as the
etymology and past usage of the term indicate.

In its second part, the book examines the embeddedness of democracy in the practices of the polis-society through an analysis of genres of expression and interpretation. Egon Flaig explores how tragedy was one of the answers given by Greek intellectuals to the contradiction between collective
will formation and acting on the one hand, and the lack of undisputed normative and moral orientation on the other. The tragic entanglement stating that ‘who acts will suffer’ indicated a connection between ‘doing’ and ‘bearing the consequences’, inviting reflection about the fragility of
normative rules. Comedy is then studied by Lucio Bertelli as a discursive mode of dissent. Unlike other dissenters in Athens, such as Pseudo-Xenophon and Plato, Aristophanes aimed at educating the democratic citizenry and fixing the vices of the people, whose lack of wisdom and learning was not
considered to be an irreparable flaw.

Jonas Grethlein argues against the straightforward relation between historiography and democratic culture by examining the ambiguous attitudes of the first historians towards oratory. He suggests that while Herodotus and Thucydides criticize the speeches both explicitly and implicitly, the
very form of their criticism contains democratic features creating a tension that is parallel to the one between content and form in Plato. Also focusing on rhetoric, Harvey Yunis explores the evolution of its political uses on the basis of two categories: primary political rhetoric composed for
delivery in political or judicial institutions, and literary rhetoric as a written genre that did not aim to affect immediate decision making. The latter genre developed a complex artistic prose deployed by critics of democracy seeking to reshape the readers’ understanding of a historical event
or a domain of knowledge.

The interpretive operation of the Athenian legal system is discussed by Adriaan Lanni as intertwined with democracy through its pervasive ‘amateurism’. It was not only that every player in the system was fundamentally a layman; argumentation in popular courts also reflected democratic
ideology especially as regards the expression of hostility toward expertise. On the grounds of this amateurism, Athenian courts were arguably more successful at maintaining order and promoting political stability than other legal systems. Ryan Balot shifts the discussion to the tension between
ancient Greek political thinking and practice with the aim of exploring within democratic politics certain ideological strands that informed the Socratic, Platonic, and Aristotelian political projects. This enterprise sustains a broader thesis about the dialectical intertwining of political
thought and practice in Athens, which is traced back to Solon and precludes a binary opposition between democratic and anti-democratic discourses. Finally in this section, Elizabeth Meyer focuses on the history of inscriptions in Athens to argue against the easy connection between the epigraphic
habit and the regime of democracy. Inscribing on stone was an act of memorializing and monumentalizing involving diverse cultural habits, such as honor and praise, religious traditions, political institutions and the culture of the city itself.

The third part of the book explores democracy’s impact on the polis society. Sara Forsdyke discusses the uneven ways in which democracy influenced communal life. She suggests that tradition and innovation combined to produce a hybrid society in which the new did not wholly dispel the old and
the existence of sophisticated formal institutions did not preclude the informal participation of women, metics and slaves in the life of the community. Claude Mossé also focuses on democracy’s principle of political participation to highlight the relation between the ambiguity of concepts such
as dēmos, kratos, isonomia, isēgoria, and so on, and the actual historical conditions that framed participatory practice, such as class-divisions and the interdependence between the dēmos and the Athenian political elite.

Robin Osborne examines the relation of democracy and religion. Discussing how religious beliefs and practices made possible a democratic ethos, he contends that “it was in relation to the gods, and not simply in relation to other men, that individuals came to acquire and envisage their
capacities for autonomy.” (292) On the other hand, while religion in Athens cannot be reduced to democracy, its links to certain democratic institutions and practices, such as the number of competitive festivals open to participation by all, made the expression of religion the expression of a
democratic community. Lawrence Tritle shifts attention to the impact of war on democracy and democratic society, discussing the impacts on the Athenian community of changes in military ministry after the Persian wars, the relation between war and democratic decision making, the economy, and the
ways in which the Athenian democracy dealt with the question of casualties and the social consequences of war’s trauma.

The book’s final section examines key concepts of the ancient Greek democratic self-understanding and their transformation between antiquity and the present. Kurt Raaflaub enquires about the historical conditions in the polis that transformed a polis-being into “a truly political being”
(324). Tracing the history of the concepts of equality and the political, he recognizes significant democratizing processes in poleis other than Athens, but contends that the fifth-century Athenian breakthrough was unique as regards the extent and characteristics of political mobilization and
participation of lower class citizens. Tracy Strong explores the interrelation of tyranny, democracy and tragedy via a reading of Nietzsche’s consideration of politics as a form of agōn and of tyranny as the act of considering as accomplished the world that one has made. Tragedy preserved the
agōn by making available the experience of confronting two equally categorical positions and recognizing that disaster comes when one or the other or both insist on being taken as final. In the last essay, Natalie Karagiannis and Peter Wagner discuss the distinction between ancient and modern
liberty. They suggest that a concept of freedom elaborated between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE included an idea of personal freedom which it combined with the democratic idea of collective freedom. This concept can provide important components of a remedy for ‘modern’ freedom both with
regard to the idea of the human being as an atom and the consequences of individual liberty for the sustainability of political society.

The volume is part of the series The Ancient World: Comparative Histories which is intended to pursue the comparative study of ancient or early societies, while occasionally adopting a more diachronic scope (vii). Unlike other volumes in the series, which discuss civilizations from
Asia through the Mediterranean to the Americas, the comparative perspective deployed here is more complex. The frames of comparison utilize the diachronic history of the polis, the long-term history of Athenian democracy, and divisions and differences characterizing Athenian democracy, as well as
the interdisciplinary linking of classics, ancient history, the history of political thought, sociology, and political science. Indeed, with the exception of Arnason’s analysis and the introduction, the book consciously remains within the limits of the European, the Greek, and often the Athenian
world. As the editors explain in the introduction, while they recognize democratic ‘alternatives to Athens’, these do not become the book’s focus (2).

This perspective is not comparative if comparison is understood as a juxtaposition of objects that exist on a global scale, whatever the grandiose adjective ‘global’ may be taken to mean. However, if one accepts that comparison, as Jörn Rüsen notes, presupposes a certain transformation of
historical consciousness that challenges the historian’s own sense of the past in relation to what is ‘other’,2 then this transformation may involve various comparative frames and constellations. The reconstitution of one’s perspective on Athenian democracy by means of a comparative
approach involves replacing the image of Athens as a discrete entity with a complex set of relations. In other words, it involves identifying an entangled set of pathways that are open-ended and move in and out of other geopolitical and cultural topoi, but also in and out of the different topoi
inscribed in the diversity of the Greek poleis, in the juxtaposition of democracy and the polis society, and in the long-term history of ancient and modern democracy.

By grounding its comparative perspective on gaps, tensions and conflicts characterizing the history of democracy and the Greek polis, the book usefully complements works utilizing a broader comparative frame which have challenged the uniqueness of the Greek paradigm by relating Greece to the
Asian and Mediterranean worlds.3 Still, the inclusion of this broader perspective in the book through Arnason’s essay raises significant theoretical questions about the interrelation of the two models. Comparison allows us to reinvent the historical objects it brings together by
enabling their understanding in new terms generated by the comparative frame itself. This means that the image of Athenian democracy changes when historical data are examined, for instance, in comparison with the modern European democratic tradition; within the background of the diverse cultural
and political traditions of the polis; or in comparison with alternatives to Athens manifested within or beyond the Greek world. How is it possible to sustain a dialogue between the different images associated with these distinct comparative frames? When it is seen from a worldly perspective, a
comparative approach limited to the Greek poleis or Athenian democracy can justifiably be criticized as Eurocentric and Athenocentric, on the grounds that it naturalizes the imaginary uniqueness of Greek or Athenian history. Still, a broader frame does not straightforwardly imply a critical
perspective on Eurocentrism, insofar as comparisons may well rely on concepts derived from the European tradition, such as democracy and the polis, and thus prefigure the uniqueness of the Greek paradigm. So the analysis of tensions underpinning these concepts, attempted by this volume, may
serve to highlight paths of critique contained within the European tradition itself.4 Reflection on the different models of comparison as regards ancient history goes beyond the scope of the present review. Yet it attests to the book’s theoretical sophistication that it invites such a
reflection by suggesting that what we call ‘Athenian democracy’ is but a unifying category for a much more diversified, complex and interactive fabric of practices, concepts, historical objects and traditions, whose mutual opposition may grant new frames for comparative historiography in the
ancient world.




Notes:



1.   Meier, C., Die Entstehung des Politischen bei den Griechen, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1980, Eng. tr. The Greek Discovery of Politics, tr. D. McLintock, Cambridge MA.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

2.   Rüsen, J., “Some Theoretical Approaches to Intercultural Comparative Historiography”, History and Theory 35, 1996: 5–22.

3.   See Horden, P. and Purcell, N., The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History, Oxford: Blackwell, 2000; Lloyd, G. E. R., Ancient Worlds, Modern Reflections: Philosophical Perspectives on Greek and Chinese Science and Culture, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006, and
Disciplines in the Making: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Elites, Learning and Innovation, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009; Vlassopoulos, K., Unthinking the Greek Polis: Ancient Greek History beyond Eurocentrism, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007, and Greeks and Barbarians, Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 2013; Haubold, J., Greece and Mesopotamia: Dialogues in Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013.

4.   On this issue see Chakrabarty, D., Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference, Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.

(read complete article)

2014.08.63

Cédric Brélaz, Sylvian Fachard (ed.), Pratiques militaires et art de la guerre dans le monde grec antique: études offertes à Pierre Ducrey à l'occasion de son 75e anniversaire. Revue des Études Militaires Anciennes, 6 - 2013. Paris: Éditions A. et J. Picard, 2013. Pp. 158. ISBN
9782708409682. €25.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Fernando Echeverría, Complutense University, Madrid (fecheverria@ucm.es)

Version at BMCR home site

Table of Contents

This book is a collection of essays addressing different aspects of warfare in the ancient Greek world, presented in honour of Pierre Ducrey on the occasion of his 75th birthday and published as a special issue of the Revue des Études Militaires Anciennes. It aims to represent Ducrey’s
main lines of research and fields of interest, from Homeric Greece to imperial Rome. The eleven papers, written by well-known figures in the study of classical warfare, are only superficially connected to each other, but all employ a sociological approach according to the editors, Cédric Brélaz
and Sylvian Fachard (8). Since they are intended to be read separately, there are no cross-references between them and no integrated analysis by the editors. Written in English (6 papers), French (3 papers), German (1 paper) and Italian (1 paper), the book is clearly addressed to specialists in
the field of Greek warfare, but will also be of interest to graduate students.

Denis Knoepfler opens the volume with some comments on Pierre Ducrey’s approach to ancient warfare, and after a brief introduction by the editors, the eleven papers follow, with the different topics arranged in chronological order. I will offer but a few comments on each of them, to highlight
their main contributions and arguments.

John Ma’s brief paper (“Histoires (militaires) de Suisse et de Grèce”) draws a comparison between classical Greece and modern Switzerland based on the shared experiences of landscape, poverty and emigration. This comparison is just a prelude to his sociological approach to the “affinities”
between Greeks and Swiss, or better to the Swiss vision of ancient Greece: fondness for Greek antiquities, Greek leagues and federations as an inspiration, a sense of territory in a complex geography, and a way of war based on citizen militias. He concludes that Swiss historians (such as Pierre
Ducrey himself) have a natural understanding of certain notions of ancient Greece, since they are similar to their own “historical landscape” (15).

Kurt A. Raaflaub’s piece (“Homer und die Agonie des Hoplitenkampfes”), partially a reply to Lawrence Tritle’s 2009 paper (“Inside the hoplite agony”, AHB 23), further develops his theory (detailed in a number of earlier works cited in his note 6) that Homeric battle descriptions
present a preliminary stage of the classical phalanx, a “proto-phalanx”. Raaflaub summarizes with great precision the complex philological, archaeological and historical problems surrounding the historicity of the military information contained in the epics, and argues that the experience of
combat described by Homer resembles closely that reconstructed for the classical period.

Jean-Nicolas Corvisier presents an interesting essay on failure and incompetence in Greek warfare (“Incompétences militaires et causes de l’échec en Grèce ancienne”), and on the relationship between both elements in the perspective of the ancient Greeks. He rightly points out that political
institutions rarely prosecuted commanders for incompetence and preferred other charges such as misuse of public funds, and argues that failure clearly had an impact on the rise of trials against generals at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth centuries BC. He also suggests that
the emphasis on incompetence depends on the narrative choices of the historian in question, but that a chain of military mistakes from the period between the fifth and the third centuries BC can be drawn from our sources. Corvisier engages in statistical work to illustrate his findings and
offers a set of useful tables illustrating the alleged causes of military failure according to the different historians.

The following contribution, by Philip de Souza (“Xenophon on naval warfare”), deals with Xenophon’s experience in naval campaigns and the reliability of his descriptions of naval warfare compared to Thucydides’ and other classical historians’. De Souza analyzes in detail several aspects of
Xenophon’s approach to the issue, such as his own naval experience, his narrative technique when describing naval encounters, his assessment of Spartan naval power, his presentation of Iphikrates’ campaign in Corcyra in the late 370s, his comments on Athenian and Spartan naval manpower, and
finally his essay on the Athenian resources and strategies for an increasing power and lasting peace (the Poroi). De Souza concludes that Xenophon had a broad and precise understanding of naval warfare, most certainly on account of his own military experience.

Vincent Gabrielsen in his paper (“The navies of classical Athens and Hellenistic Rhodes: an epigraphic comparison”) argues that the epigraphic record reveals considerable differences in the organization of the navies in Athens and Rhodes in their respective periods of naval ascendancy.
Evidence from Athens points at a strongly bureaucratic and entirely public system of naval organization and logistics, while at Rhodes private participation was encouraged in many fields (ships’ ownership, recruitment of crews, distribution of booty). The paper is a concise analysis of a vast
amount of epigraphic information that raises crucial questions regarding the organizational capacities of ancient states.

Sylvian Fachard follows with a contribution on the fortress of Gyphtokastro (“Eleutherai as the gates to Boiotia”), one of the best preserved Greek fortifications and commonly assumed to be part of the Athenian defensive system in the Boeotian frontier. Using a “landscape approach” (82), i.e.
interpreting Eleutherai “in its historical, material and environmental context”, Fachard attempts to achieve a better understanding of the origin and functions of the fort. He claims that, since Eleutherai was in fact redundant with nearby Oinoe, just 6 kilometres away, it must have been built by
the Boeotians by the mid-fourth century BC, with the frontier running between both forts. Fachard’s study effectively draws on landscape, settlement pattern, architecture, and epigraphy, producing a very persuasive explanation for the construction of Eleutherai.

Marco Betalli (“La kataphronesis di Cabria”) focuses on a minor engagement between Spartans and Athenians during Agesilaos’ expedition against Thebes in 378 BC. The victory of the Athenian contingent, sent to the aid of the Thebans, over the Spartan troops, and especially the role and
reputation of its commander Chabrias, are emphasized by Betalli as a sign of Athenian contempt for the Spartan military reputation and interpreted as a new Athenian claim to “imperial” identity. This brief piece emphasizes the role of the “psychological sphere” (112) in classical Greek warfare,
in a period in which Athens is trying to rebuild the empire and regain a position as a first-rank power in Greece.

John Ma offers a second contribution to the volume, this time on Alexander’s generalship (“Alexander’s decision-making as historical problem”). Ma addresses a complex and wide-ranging question, why did Alexander win, through the analysis of his decisions in combat, a process described as
rational by the literary sources. He offers interesting insights into the problems and paradoxes of recent studies on Alexander’s generalship, dominated to a considerable extent by didactic approaches that seek to draw lessons from the life of a military “genius”. Ma explores three fields of
research in which Alexander’s decision-making can be of relevance: intellectual history, military history, and historiography. If anything, Ma confirms that military success is much more than optimal decision-making or better troops and weapons: army management, logistics, intelligence,
qualified subordinates, and so on, also play a considerable role.

Robin Lane Fox presents an overview of warfare during the early period of the Successors (“Aspects of warfare: Alexander and the Successors”), which he considers extremely revealing but “not always exploited fully” (127). He emphasizes continuity in a broad range of military patterns and
practices between Alexander and the Successors, specially “heroic” generalship, tactics and battle planning, and preference for cavalry charges and the use of elephants (with fascinating remarks from his personal experience in re-enactment for Oliver Stone’s Alexander). There are
differences as well, such as the relevance of siege warfare, and particularly naval warfare, which developed considerably under the Successors. Lane Fox discusses in some detail questions of logistics and the mobility of armies, and points out that baggage trains “contained the livelihood and
families of armies” (134), which in the end determined loyalties.

The following piece, by Jean-Christophe Couvenhes (“Érétrie, la garnison de Rhamnonte et Dikaiarchos, d’Antigone Gonatas à Démétrios II”), explores the relationship between the town of Eretria and the Athenian fortress of Rhamnous during the third century BC, analyzing several pieces of
epigraphic evidence. A decree in honour of Dikaiarchos, Athenian commander of the Macedonian garrison posted at Eretria by 235 BC, is presented by Couvenhes as especially revealing of this relationship, and particularly of the Macedonian domination of Euboea and the northern regions of Attica
during the third century BC. The inscription, containing a wealth of information about Dikaiarchos’ life and military career, seems to present the region of the Eurippus as an integrated strategic area, with the different forts and towns in permanent contact, and playing a considerable role in
the Macedonian effort to control Athens.

Angelos Chaniotis concludes the volume with his contribution “Roman army in Aphrodisias”, in which he presents a funerary inscription from Aphrodisias dated to the first quarter of the third century AD. The inscription illustrates the relationship between the city and Roman imperial
institutions, especially the provincial governor, the army, and several Roman officials. Chaniotis argues that this attests to the process of gradual integration of Aphrodisias into the Roman provincial administration that finally led to its promotion as capital of the province.

Although some of the papers in this volume offer a broader perspective, in general the essays are rather specialized, tending to focus on specific aspects of fairly narrow questions and very concrete issues. At the same time, they all address current problems in the different fields of
scholarship on ancient Greek warfare, making relevant (albeit at times minor) contributions to the general discussion. As a collection of disparate and heterogeneous papers, the present volume must be assessed according to the quality not of the total sum, but of the individual works, and in this
respect I believe that it has a great deal to offer to an interested reader.

(read complete article)

2014.08.62

Martin Jehne, Bernhard Linke, Jörg Rüpke (ed.), Religiöse Vielfalt und soziale Integration: die Bedeutung der Religion für die kulturelle Identität und die politische Stabilität im republikanischen Italien. Studien zur Alten Geschichte, Bd 17. Heidelberg: Verlag Antike, 2013. Pp. 333.
ISBN 9783938032589. €64.90.

Reviewed by Saskia T. Roselaar, University of Ghent (saskiaroselaar@gmail.com)

Version at BMCR home site

[Authors and titles are listed at the end of the review.]

This volume collects the proceedings of a conference held in 2007 as a follow-up to an earlier conference, whose proceedings were published by Jehne and Pfeilschifter, 2006.1 As the previous conference was felt to have neglected the impact of religion on Roman and Italian society,
the second meeting focused especially on the question of how religion contributed to the political stability of the network of allies that supported the Roman Republic, as well as to the development of a common identity within Italy during the Republican period.

In the introduction the three editors explain the close connection between religion and society in general: specific rituals were essential to the functioning of the Greek and Roman state, and citizens were connected to their states through their participation in civic religion. Thus,
participation in religion, or the exclusion of certain people from religious events, was an essential mechanism for integration or separation in the ancient world. Religion also served to emphasize power relations between states and their allies. The editors rightly emphasize, however, that
although religion indeed appears to have been an integrative mechanism, this was not necessarily the result of a conscious Roman policy, nor of a desire for cultural or political integration. Nor should its effects be overestimated; the limits of communication and the lack of an effective
bureaucracy meant that Rome could not influence the Italians in all aspects of their society and culture.

The first article, by John Scheid, discusses how the Romans mobilised some of the most important cult places in Italy for their own purposes. Octavian, for example, reinvented the rituals of the Caeninenses, purportedly an ancient cult from the Latin town of Caenina, although the ritual as
performed in the Augustan period was mostly fabricated by antiquarians. Augustus turned many cult places into colonies or municipia, e.g. Lucus Feroniae and Fanum Fortunae. Some of these had not been active for decades, but Augustus successfully mobilized these Italian cults in his effort
to show his pietas to the old gods and his adherence to the values of the Roman state.

Nicola Terrenato traces the discourse on the Romanization of religion. It has been assumed that Italians and provincials shared a similar outlook on religion as the Romans, which meant that religious ‘Romanization’ did not have the same large impact as the Romanization of other aspects of
life. Nevertheless, religion, e.g. adherence to ancient religious practices, was used by indigenous people as a way of silently resisting Romanization. Terrenato argues that the religious policy of the Roman state was concerned mostly with ritual practice, what he terms ‘metareligion’, rather
than with the actual faith of worshippers. The Romans put in place sanctuaries and priesthoods if these did not exist, but did not disturb local cults that were functioning properly.

A short piece by Neville Morley argues for the importance of religion in the changes that occurred during the late Republic. Religion experienced the same developments as the wider economy and society of Italy, which were all subject to four basic processes: concentration, to wit, of people
and resources in certain locations, mostly urban centres; crystallisation, i.e. the fixation of power and institutions and their connection to specific locations; integration, in the political, social, economic and ideological sense; and differentiation, e.g. a greater dichotomy between town and
countryside and between rich and poor. As other papers in the volume argue, religion became more concentrated in urban centres, especially Rome, and its rituals became crystallized into fixed procedures; it was also essential in the integration of Italy into the Roman state, but at the same time
differentiated those who belonged to the state from those who did not.

Bernhard Linke investigates the legal concept of ager romanus. The amount of ‘Roman’ land had not been expanded since the fourth century, meaning that most of Italy was not ‘Roman’ according to religious law. Most rituals of the Roman state could only take place in ager romanus,
so that many Italians were in practice excluded, even if they were Roman citizens. Rituals that included Italians, such as the Latin festival, served to emphasize the power of Rome: the Lanuvians, for example, were Roman citizens, but had to pray for the wellbeing of the Romans. Religion could
also serve to integrate, however: in the third century several temples for ‘integrating’ gods, e.g. Fides and Fortuna Publica, were inaugurated. Furthermore, the success of the Romans in battle suggested that they enjoyed the gods’ favour, thus binding the allies to Rome.

The religious power relations between Rome and her allies are also investigated by Veit Rosenberger. He firstly discusses the ritual of evocatio, by which the deity of a defeated people was transferred to Rome. The willingness of a foreign god to be worshipped in Rome legitimized the
Roman conquest; the ritual also illustrates the great flexibility of Roman religion. Rosenberger also investigates prodigia, omens reported from Italy, but expiated by Roman priests.2 This religious communication illustrates Roman power over Italian religion; on the other hand,
if cults were venerated in Rome, this increased their chances of (voluntary) worship in other Italian locations, so the religious discourse was not totally one-sided.

Olivier de Cazanove discusses an episode often regarded as an example of Roman abuse of power, namely the confiscation of roof tiles from the temple of Hera at Lacinion by the censor Fulvius Flaccus in 173 BCE. However, de Cazanove argues that, since the temple was located inside the Roman
colony of Croton, a censor had the authority to interfere with its public buildings. Nevertheless, the local population was shocked by Flaccus’ actions, which was what he intended – to demonstrate Rome’s power and ensure the loyalty of the locals, who had recently revolted against Rome with
Hannibal.

Tesse Stek re-evaluates a long-held idea about the structure of Italian settlement, namely the pagus-vicus settlement pattern.3 These structures also had religious connotations, since it is assumed that already in the pre-conquest period every vicus and pagus
had its own sanctuary. Stek argues, however, that vici and pagi were essentially Roman creations and that most of the gods attested as deities connected to these settlement structures were introduced after the Roman conquest. When these new settlements were created, the introduction
of new cults played an essential role in their self-definition.

Another long-held assumption relates to the Capitoline cult, i.e. the cults of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, which were assumed to have been essential to Roman religious identity and therefore introduced in all colonies established by Rome. Eva-Maria Lackner argues that temples securely
identified as Capitolia cannot be attested in the period of the foundation of most colonies, but date instead from the early second century onwards. Their purpose may have been the political stabilisation of Italy after the Second Punic War. Only after the Social War did Capitolia become a
general feature of the urban landscape of Italy.

Colonies are also discussed by Daniel Gargola. It is often assumed that colonies were ‘mirror images’ of Rome, with an all-encompassing plan including a pomerium, mundus, Capitolium and other public buildings. However, such a general plan should not be assumed; colonial founders
often incorporated pre-existing local cults in the colony’s pantheon. The law of Urso illustrates that the main focus of local religion was the correct execution of ritual, i.e. ‘metareligion,’ not the actual beliefs of the people; the correct performance of public sacra were essential to
fulfil the obligations of the community to the gods. Belonging to a community was essential for an individual’s identity, and taking part in the rituals of Rome created a larger identity among all the cities that participated.

The relationship between religion and economy is investigated by Marta García Morcillo. There is a great deal of evidence for economic activity near sanctuaries, e.g. at religious festivals. Sanctuaries also possessed lands and other valuables; many temples were involved in the production of
votive gifts. Among the most famous temples were those at Lucus Feroniae and Fanum Voltumnae in Etruria; it likely that there was a connection between them and the role of the Tiber as an economic corridor. Maritime sanctuaries, such as those of Hera at Graviscae and Marica at Minturnae, also
served important economic functions. Others were located on transhumance trails or important roads. These temples were integrated into the local community, but, depending on their location also played a role in regional and even international exchange.

Jörg Rüpke discusses the variation of religious phenomena in Italy and the way the Romans handled this variation. The Romans were often willing to adopt and adapt religious aspects of other people, e.g. through evocatio; Roman religion eventually became strongly Hellenized, which
dramatically changed pre-existing religious beliefs and rituals. Using the religious calendar and the lex Ursonensis as examples, Rüpke investigates the idea of ‘metareligion’, also discussed by other papers. The Romans saw religio not as a static system of beliefs and rituals, but
as ‘the cult of the gods’; this could take many different shapes depending on what deity was venerated. Only public cults required regulation, so that religion – or the wrong way of worshipping – would not interfere with politics. Private religion was mostly unsupervised, so that religious
diversity was no hindrance to the political (as well as economic and social) integration of Italy.

This book offers many new and fascinating insights into the interrelationship between religion and politics in Roman Italy. The idea of ‘metareligion,’ investigated by various authors, is interesting – it has been argued before that the Romans were more interested in the correct forms of
ritual than in religious beliefs, but this book adds some very welcome theoretical background to this idea. Unfortunately, this theoretical background is only discussed in any detail by Rüpke; it would have been interesting to see more discussion of the theory behind the way Romans thought about
their religion and the consequences of this vision for the religious practices of Rome and its allies. The religious philosophy of the Italians is not discussed at all – can we assume that it was similar to the Roman? The book is certainly correct in emphasizing that religion should not be seen
in isolation; it is very clear throughout that the religious and political integration of Republican Italy were closely connected. The interaction of religion with other aspects of society, such as the economic or social history of Italy, receives less attention, unfortunately. This would be a
worthwhile avenue of investigation for further conferences and publications.

The great merit of this book, for the moment, is to bring religion once again to the centre of academic attention in the study of the Roman Republic. Furthermore, the emphasis on Italy is very welcome – although the sources are written from a Roman perspective, the contributors rightly stress
the agency of the Italian peoples in their religious choices, and the role of local and regional religious activity in the relationship between Rome and its allies. This Italian focus fits well with the recent renewed attention that academics have given to the Italian peoples in the study of the
Republican period. The book is well formatted with very few typos, and should be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Republic and the Italian allies who were essential for Rome’s political stability.

Table of Contents

Martin Jehne, Bernhard Linke & Jörg Rüpke, Einleitung, 7-24

John Scheid, Rom und die großen Kultorte Italiens, 25-42

Nicola Terrenato, Patterns of cultural change in Roman Italy. Non-elite religion and the defense of cultural self-consistency, 43-60

Neville Morley, Religion, Urbanisation and Social Change, 61-68

Bernhard Linke, Die Einheit nach der Vielfalt. Die religiöse Dimension des römischen Hegemonialanspruches in Latium (5. - 3. Jahrhundert v. Chr.), 69-94

Veit Rosenberger, Rom und Italien: Religiöse Kommunikation und die Aufnahme neuer Gottheiten, 95-110

Olivier de Cazanove, Un sanctuaire de Grande Grèce dans une colonie romaine: l'Héraion du Lacinion après la 2ème Guerre Punique, 111-136

Tesse D. Stek, Questions of cult and continuity in late Republican Roman Italy: ‘Italic’ or ‘Roman’ sanctuaries and the so-called pagus-vicus system, 137-162

Eva-Maria Lackner, Arx und Capitolinischer Kult in den Latinischen und Bürgerkolonien Italiens als Spiegel römischer Religionspolitik, 163-201

Daniel J. Gargola, Rome, its Colonies and the Maintenance of a Larger Identity, 202-235

Marta García Morcillo, Trade and Sacred Places: Fairs, Markets and Exchange in Ancient Italic Sanctuaries, 236-274

Jörg Rüpke, Regulating and Conceptualizing Religious Plurality: Italian Experiences and Roman Solutions, 275-295

Anhang

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Notes:



1.   Martin Jehne and Rene Pfeilschifter (eds.), 2006, Herrschaft ohne Integration? Rom und Italien in republikanischer Zeit, Frankfurt am Main.

2.   For Rosenberger’s full argument on prodigia, see Veit Rosenberger, 2007, ‘Prodigien aus Italien. Geographische Verteilung und religiöse Kommunikation,’ Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz 16, 235-257.

3.   His ideas are more fully set out in Tesse D. Stek, 2009, Cult Places and Cultural Change in Republican Italy. A contextual approach to religious aspects of rural society after the Roman conquest, Amsterdam.

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Saturday, August 30, 2014

2014.08.61

Troels Myrup Kristensen, Making and Breaking the Gods: Christian Responses to Pagan Sculpture in Late Antiquity. Aarhus Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity 12. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2013. Pp. 297. ISBN 9788771240894. $56.00.

Reviewed by John Pollini, University of
Southern California (pollini@usc.edu)

Version at BMCR home site

Preview

Revised from the author’s 2009 dissertation at Aarhus University, this book deals with Christian responses to non-Christian sculpture in particular areas of the Roman Empire during the late antique period, roughly between the 4th and 7th centuries. Troels Myrup
Kristensen seeks to interpret the material evidence in light of the literary and epigraphical record, where available. The particular importance of this book lies in the author’s presentation of select case studies of cities and sacred shrines in Egypt and the Near East and the various and
complex ways Christians came to terms with what had been a dominant polytheistic culture. By drawing upon a wide range of objects from Egypt and the Near East, together with some comparative material from other parts of the empire, Kristensen presents a fuller understanding of the often complex
social and religious dynamics at work in the world of late antiquity.

Discussed in the Introduction, “Driving the Demons Away: The World of Demons,” is an inscribed marble base once topped with a cross that was set up in Ephesos by a Christian who proudly boasts of his destruction of the “deceitful form [eidos] of the demonic Artemis,” formerly the
beloved patron goddess of the city. This example, which Kristensen uses to point out other issues to be discussed in subsequent chapters, testifies to the Christian belief that such images were possessed by demons, for which reason they had to be destroyed, mutilated, or somehow neutralized. A
particular form of defacement was carving a cross or crosses on a work to drive out the perceived demon inhabiting it and to apotropaically keep it from returning. The author does not view Christian assaults on the material culture of polytheists as merely “mindless acts of religious violence by
fanatical mobs,” but as “revelatory of contemporary conceptions of images and the different ways in which the material manifestations of the pagan past could be negotiated in Late Antiquity” (p. 17). Although Christians tended to target cult images, eventually they also attacked non-cultic
statues of the gods, since they were conceived as possible recipients of veneration even in spaces not considered sacred. Moreover, Christians could not always be sure what constituted a cult image, which could be large, impressive, and made of precious materials, or small and made of
non-precious media. And while, as the author points out, early Christians had images of their own at the same time that they were attacking what they considered to be the “idols” of polytheists, it is also true that Christians in time came to destroy even their own images during the so-called
iconoclastic “debate,” in reality an “iconomachy,” which nearly tore the Eastern Orthodox Church apart in the 8th and 9th centuries.

Chapter 1 sets out the author’s methodological approach and terminology. As he stresses, the interpretation and dating of the archaeological evidence for destruction can be particularly difficult when information about the original context is limited or absent, as well as when there is no
associated literary or epigraphic information. Kristensen provides an excellent discussion of the theological nature of divine images in Roman religion, a subject that has commonly been neglected in past scholarship (but see C. Ando, The Matter of the Gods [Berkeley 2008]). Also considered
is the targeting of particular body parts, which gives us some insight into Christian thinking about the body and its function in various social contexts. A particularly important contribution of this book is its discussion of the Abodah Zarah, the part of the Talmud that deals in detail
with prohibitions against what the Jews considered to be “idols,” which in turn influenced Christian thinking on this subject. Among the cult and decorative images of the gods—characterized by the author as “mythological statuary” (p. 68)—that Constantine brought back to Constantinople was
Phidias’ cult image of Zeus from the Temple of that god at Olympia. Though it is the common view that Constantine did so to embellish his city, there was undoubtedly also another and arguably more insidious intent which the author does not suggest, namely, that in the case of cult images
Constantine undoubtedly attempted to deprive pagan sanctuaries of their sacred statuary in the hope of stopping devout polytheists from flocking to these sites to continue their age-old religious practices. It is also worth noting that, from a polytheistic point of view , the subject matter of a
cult figure is not mythological, but religious.

Kristensen suggests that the body of “anti-pagan” legislation in the Codex Theodosianus was against cult worship and sacrifice, not against the images themselves. While that is generally true, there is also the imperial mandate of 407/408 (CTh 16.10.19) that any images in
temples and shrines that have received worship shall be torn from their foundations. In addition, Augustine (City of God, 5.26) praises Theodosius for having ordered (in the late 4th century) that “pagan” statues (simulacra gentilium) be everywhere overthrown.
Notwithstanding imperial pronouncements and other legislation hostile to non-Christian worship, the primary instigators of destructive actions against images of the gods were bishops like Theophilus in the late 4th century and Peter Mongus a century later, though ancient accounts of
the scope of the destruction they inspired may be exaggerated. Kristensen rightly points out the problems in putting too much credence in the iconoclastic deeds preserved in highly rhetorical Christian hagiographies, sometimes of even fictional saints. And while this is especially true in the
case of miraculous occurrences, or reports of an extraordinary number of images destroyed or polytheists converted to Christianity, these accounts nevertheless provide clear evidence for the various forms of intentional Christian destruction and damage that we find in great abundance in the
archaeological record, in part because these hagiographies served to inspire many others to destroy and desecrate images of the gods.

Chapter 2 focuses on material culture, sites, and sanctuaries in Egypt and Christian attempts to destroy or transform them in creating a new Christian identity. As we would expect to find in all such transformative social and religious situations, there will be not only change and continuity
from one culture to another but also a wide range of responses to the old on the part of the new dominant and dominating culture. In his discussion of Christian reactions to bodies (179-80), the author notes the similarities between Christian attacks on the material images of the gods and on
certain living individuals, most notably the brilliant Neoplatonist Hypatia of Alexandria, who was stripped naked, viciously murdered, and dragged through the streets of Alexandria by a Christian mob. Like the cult statue of Serapis from the Serapaeum, her body was also dismembered and burned.
Besides Alexandria, with its separate and also mixed Greek, Roman, and Egyptian cultural traditions, Kristensen looks at other more traditionally Egyptian areas of the Nile Valley (Abydos, Dendera, Luxor, Karnak, and western Thebes) to explore similar and yet somewhat different Christian
responses to images of the gods, especially Christian targeting of select body parts. As the author shows, some of these Christian responses may be unique to Egypt, based in part on old traditional Egyptian beliefs about the human body in the afterlife.

Chapter 3 turns to the Near East in late antiquity, focusing again on several case studies based on the archaeological and literary record. Unlike his discussion of Egypt, which concentrates (with the exception of Alexandria) on religious shrines, most of the author’s discussion in this
chapter looks at urban contexts, most notably the prosperous cities of Palmyra, Scythopolis, Caesarea Maritima, and Caesarea Philippi. One of the drawbacks of case studies in this part of the world is the dearth of archaeological publications of sites and the lack of abundant sculpture, although
in the latter case this in part may be because these areas, lacking good sources of stone used bronze, which unlike stone sculpture was commonly recycled. Kristensen also discusses, on the one hand, some instances of Jewish iconoclasm in these areas in the late antique period and explores, on the
other hand, how over time even Jews under the influence of Hellenism began to adopt non-cultic figural images, notwithstanding the commandment banning such representations. In these locales, the author considers Christian responses to Greco-Roman images found in both religious shrines and civic
buildings. Once again there is a focus on the body and exposing the body (both sculptural as well as human), especially in the context of bathing establishments, which were taken over and used by Christians. Even in public contexts, Greco-Roman sculpture became increasingly problematic for
Christians, though in other settings such images were left unmolested. Figural depictions of Greek stories of the gods were also sometimes left untouched, since these could be regarded as purely fictitious and of a non-religious nature, in that they were not objects of worship.

Caesarea Maritima provided an interesting example of purposeful display in prominent places of fragmented statues, that is, statues lacking heads, arms, and other body parts, as a means of remembering the past and possibly as part of some new late antique “aesthetic.” This interpretation
reflects the author’s interest in discovering more about viewing culture in late antiquity. However, since there is no literary documentation about such usage, the evidence can be explained in different ways, making it difficult to determine the intent of those who created such assemblages. In
Caesarea Philippi the author adduces some instances of Greco-Roman images being given completely new meaning. For example, he suggests that some might have been reinterpreted as figures of Christ, though again without context and documentable written confirmation, that can only be speculation.
In short, we can never fully understand the true motivation for such an action or for other forms of iconoclasm.

Although this book breaks new ground in a number of ways, like many books written about late antiquity, it tends to present the evidence from a positivist Christian point of view. For example, Christian reuse, alteration, or even mutilation of images of the gods is regarded as “appropriation”
(e.g., 94-96), rather than desecration, if looked at from a polytheistic point of view. Also, like many others, the author uses the derogatory term “pagan” as a “short hand” way ( 34) to distinguish between polytheism/polytheistic and Christianity/Christian. Accordingly, he speaks of “pagan
gods.” Therefore, we must ask: is this to differentiate these gods from Christian gods? In short, why use loaded Judeo-Christian terminology like “pagan” and even “idol” when speaking of polytheism/polytheistic or their gods and their images (whether cultic or decorative)? Perhaps it is
time to also look at late antiquity from a polytheistic point of view, especially when considering Christian acts of destruction.

Though limited geographically, this book is well balanced and draws upon comparanda from other than the principal regional areas of focus. It is well edited, with very few typos or other mistakes and with many good quality photos, a number of which are in color and were taken by the author
himself.

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