Wednesday, October 1, 2014


Books Received September 2014.

Version at BMCR home site

This list contains all books available for review this month (only those with asterisks are unassigned; those that appear without asterisks are already assigned to reviewers). Qualified volunteers should indicate their interest by sending a message to, with their last name and requested author in the subject line. They should state their qualifications (both in the sense of degrees held and in the sense of experience in the field concerned) and explain any previous relationship with the author or authors. Volunteers are expected to have received their PhDs. Graduate students writing theses will be considered if nominated by a supervisor who agrees in advance to read and approve the review before submission.

The list of books available for review is sent out by e-mail on or near the first of the following month. This page will not be updated to indicate that books have been assigned. Please consult the updated list of books available for review at

*Avgerinos, Charilaos E. Τα Φαινόμενα του Αράτου στους σύγχρονους και τους μεταγενέστερους του. Πονήματα, 8. Athens: Ακαδημία Αθηνών / Κέντρον Ερεύνης της Ελληνικής και της Λατινικής Γραμματείας, 2014. lxxxv, 919 p. € 38.00 (pb). ISBN 9789604042821.

*Barnes, Jonathan and Anthony Kenny (rev., edd.). Aristotle's ethics: writings from the complete works. Revised, edited, and with an introduction. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014. 513 p. $22.95 (pb). ISBN 9780691158464.

*Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes (ed.). Space, place and identity in nothern Anatolia. Geographica Historica, Bd 29. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 271 p. € 49.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515107488.

*Bianchi, Emanuela. The feminine symptom: aleatory matter in the Aristotelian cosmos. New York: Fordham University Press, 2014. xii, 320 p. $27.00 (pb). ISBN 9780823262229.

*Blouin, Katherine. Triangular landscapes: environment, society, and the state in the Nile Delta under Roman rule. Oxford studies on the Roman economy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xvii, 429 p. $150.00. ISBN 9780199688722.

**Bowden, Hugh. Alexander the Great: a very short introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xxii, 120 p. $11.95 (pb). ISBN 9780198706151.

*Boys-Stones, George, Dimitri El Murr and Christopher Gill (edd.). The Platonic art of philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. x, 341 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107038981.

*Bracci, Francesco (ed., trans., comm.). La satira 11 di Giovenale: introduzione, traduzione e commento. Texte und Kommentare, Bd 48. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. v, 230 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110371130.

**Bricault, Laurent and Miguel John Versluys (edd.). Power, politics and the cults of Isis. Proceedings of the Vth International Conference of Isis Studies, Boulogne-sur-Mer, October 13 - 15, 2011. Religions in the Graeco-Roman world, 180. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xvii, 364 p. € 139.00. ISBN 9789004277182.

*Brody, Lisa R. and Gail L. Hoffman (edd.). Roman in the provinces: art on the periphery of empire. Chestnut Hill, MA: McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College, 2014. v, 352 p. $50.00 (pb). ISBN 9781892850225.

*Brown, H. Paul. Twenty Greek stories: designed to accompany Hansen and Quinn's Greek: an intensive course. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xiii, 222 p. $19.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865168220.

*Buzzetti, Eric. Xenophon the Socratic prince: the argument of the Anabasis of Cyrus. Recovering political philosophy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. xii, 337 p. $110.00. ISBN 9781137333308.

*Cadiou, François and Milagros Navarro Caballero (edd.). La guerre et ses traces: conflits et sociétés en Hispanie à l'époque de la conquête romaine (IIIe-Ier s. a.C.). Mémoires, 37. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions,, 2014. 658 p. € 70.00. ISBN 9782356130969.

*Campedelli, Camilla. L'amministrazione municipale delle strade romane in Italia. Antiquitas. Reihe 1, Abhandlungen zur alten Geschichte, Bd 62. Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, 2014. xii, 345 p. € 75.00. ISBN 9783774938588.

*Cazzuffi, Elena (ed., trans., comm.). Decimi Magni Ausonii Ludus septem sapientum. Introduzione, testo, traduzione e commento. Spudasmata, Bd 160. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 2014. cliv, 137 p. € 39.80 (pb). ISBN 9783487151656.

*de Jong, Irene J. F. Narratology and classics: a practical guide. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. viii, 230 p. $35.00 (pb). ISBN 9780199688708.

*del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. Incantations and anti-witchcraft texts from Ugarit. Studies in ancient Near Eastern records (SANER), 4. Boston; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. vii, 254 p., xxiii p. of plates. € 99.95. ISBN 9781614516279.

*Di Berardino, Angelo (ed.). Historical atlas of ancient Christianity. St. Davids, PA: ICCS Press, 2013. 478 p. $124.95. ISBN 9781624280009.

*Dzielska, Maria and Kamilla Twardowska (edd.). Divine men and women in the history and society of late Hellenism. Byzantina et Slavica Cracoviensia, 7. Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press, 2013. 168 p. $42.00 (pb). ISBN 9788323336792.

*Edmunds, Lowell. Approaches to Greek myth. Second edition (first edition 1990). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. viii, 470 p. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 9781421414195.

*Fine, Steven and Aaron Koller (edd.). Talmuda de-Eretz Israel: archaeology and the rabbis in late antique Palestine. Studia Judaica, Bd 73. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xiii, 352 p. € 119.95. ISBN 9781614514855.

*Fletcher, Richard. Apuleius' Platonism: the impersonation of philosophy. Cambridge classical studies. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xi, 319 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107025479.

*Floridi, Lucia (ed., trans., comm.). Lucillio, Epigrammi: introduzione, testo critico, traduzione e commento. Texte und Kommentare Bd 47. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 662 p. € 129.95. ISBN 9783110336160.

Fries, Almut (ed., comm.). Pseudo-Euripides, Rhesus: edited with introduction and commentary. Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 114. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xvii, 517 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110342079.

*Green, Steven J. Disclosure and discretion in Roman astrology: Manilius and his Augustan contemporaries. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. ix, 225 p. $74.00. ISBN 9780199646807.

**Heerink, Mark and Gesine Manuwald (edd.). Brill's companion to Valerius Flaccus. Brill's companions in classical studies. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xiii, 438 p. € 149.00. ISBN 9789004227415.

*Henderson, Jeffrey, et al. Digital Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014. ISBN

*Jim, Theodora Suk Fong. Sharing with the Gods: aparchai and dekatai in ancient Greece. Oxford classical monographs. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xv, 373 p. $150.00. ISBN 9780198706823.

*Krämer, Hans. Gesammelte Aufsätze zu Platon (herausgegeben von Dagmar Mirbach). Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 321. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xiii, 592 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110267181.

*Löx, Markus. Monumenta sanctorum: Rom und Mailand als Zentren des frühen Christentums: Märtyrerkult und Kirchenbau unter den Bischöfen Damasus und Ambrosius. Spätantike -Frühes Christentum - Byzanz. Reihe B: Studien und Perspektiven, Bd 39. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2013. 279 p., [69] p. of plates. € 69.00. ISBN 9783895009556.

*Lusnia, Susann S. Creating Severan Rome: the architecture and self-image of L. Septimius Severus (A.D. 193-211). Collection Latomus, 345. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus, 2014. 293 p., 64 p. of plates. € 59.00 (pb). ISBN 9782870312926.

Madsen, Jesper Majbom (ed.). Roman rule in Greek and Latin writing: double vision. Impact of empire, 18. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. vi, 303 p. € 125.00. ISBN 9789004277380.

**Magny, Ariane. Porphyry in fragments: reception of an anti-Christian text in late antiquity. Ashgate studies in philosophy and theology in late antiquity. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. 202 p. $104.95. ISBN 9781409441151.

*Martorelli, Luca (ed.). Greco antico nell'Occidente carolingio: frammenti di testi attici nell'Ars di Prisciano. Spudasmata, Bd 159. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2014. x, 610 p. € 88.00 (pb). ISBN 9783487151632.

*Mayor, Adrienne. The Amazons: lives and legends of warrior women across the ancient world. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014. xiv, 519 p. $29.95. ISBN 9780691147208.

*Melzer, Arthur M. Philosophy between the lines: the lost history of esoteric writing. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2014. xviii, 453 p. $45.00. ISBN 9780226175096.

**Michel, Claudia. Homer und die Tragödie: zu den Bezügen zwischen Odyssee und Orestie-Dramen (Aischylos: Orestie; Sophokles: Elektra; Euripides: Elektra). DRAMA - Studien zum antiken Drama und seiner Rezeption, 15. Tübingen: Narr Verlag, 2014. 256 p. € 58.00 (pb). ISBN 9783823368991.

*Nilsson, Ingela and Paul Stephenson (edd.). Wanted: Byzantium. The desire for a lost empire. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia, 15. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet, 2014. ix, 304 p. SEK 279.00 (pb). ISBN 9789155489151.

*Palmer, Ada. Reading Lucretius in the Renaissance. I Tatti studies in Italian Renaissance history. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. xiv, 372 p. $39.95. ISBN 9780674725577.

*Parmeggiani, Giovanni (ed.). Between Thucydides and Polybius: the golden age of Greek historiography. Hellenic studies, 64. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, trustees for Harvard University, 2014. vii, 328 p. $24.95 (pb). ISBN 9780674428348.

*Parpas, Andreas P. Alexander the Great: the dissolution of the Persian naval supremacy 334-331 B.C.. [Dubai]: Andreas P. Parpas, 2013. 266 p. ISBN 9781490414058.

*Pilz, Oliver and Gunnar Seelentag (edd.). Cultural practices and material culture in archaic and classical Crete: proceedings of the international conference, Mainz, May 20-21, 2011. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. vi, 290 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110331646.

*Power, Tristan and Roy K. Gibson (edd.). Suetonius, the biographer: studies in Roman lives. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xii, 338 p. $150.00. ISBN 9780199697106.

*Richardson, James H. and Federico Santangelo (edd.). The Roman historical tradition: regal and Republican Rome. Oxford readings in classical studies, . Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. viii, 372 p. $49.95 (pb). ISBN 9780199657858.

*Rüpke, Jörg. From Jupiter to Christ: on the history of religion in the Roman imperial period. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. vii, 328 p. $120.00. ISBN 9780198703723.

Scanlon, Thomas F. (ed.). Sport in the Greek and Roman worlds. Volume 1: early Greece, the Olympics, and contests. Oxford readings in classical studies. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xii, 338 p. $65.00 (pb). ISBN 9780199215324.

Scanlon, Thomas F. (ed.). Sport in the Greek and Roman worlds. Volume 2: Greek athletic identities and Roman sports and spectacle. Oxford readings in classical studies. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xii, 389 p. $65.00 (pb). ISBN 9780198703785.

*Scholl, Walther. Der Daphnis-Mythos und seine Entwicklung: von den Anfängen bis zu Vergils vierter Ekloge. Spudasmata, Bd 157. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2014. xxix, 667 p. € 98.00. ISBN 9783487151403.

*Schöpe, Björn. Der römische Kaiserhof in severischer Zeit (193-235 n. Chr.). Historia - Einzelschriften, Bd 231. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 401 p. € 72.00. ISBN 9783515106955.

*Sermamoglou-Soulmaidi, Georgia. Playful philosophy and serious sophistry: a reading of Plato's Euthydemus. Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 115. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 203 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110368093.

*Śliwa, Joachim. Magical gems from the collection of Constantine Schmidt-Ciążyński and from other Polish collections. Kraków: Archeobooks, 2014. 134 p. (pb). ISBN 9788393794102.

*Sommerstein, Alan H. and Isabelle C. Torrance (edd.). Oaths and swearing in ancient Greece. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 307. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. viii, 246 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110200591.

*Susanetti, Davide. Atene post-occidentale: spettri antichi per la democrazia comtemporanea. Frecce, 184. Roma: Caarocci editore, 2014. 299 p. € 20.00 (pb). ISBN 9788843073566.

**Upson-Saia, Kristi, Carly Daniel-Hughes and Alicia J. Batten (edd.). Dressing Judeans and Christians in antiquity. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2014. xvi, 293 p. $129.95. ISBN 9781472422767.

*Weidemann, Hermann (ed.). Aristoteles, De interpretatione (Περί ερμηνείας). Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, 2014. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. lviii, 48 p. € 59.95. ISBN 9783110349054.

*Weidemann, Hermann (ed., trans., comm.). Aristoteles, Peri hermeneias. Aristoteles. Werke in deutcher Übersetzung, Bd 1/II. Boston; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. ix, 487 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9781614517412.

Wilfong, Terry G. and Andrew W. S. Ferrara (edd.). Karanis revealed: discovering the past and present of a Michigan excavation in Egypt. Kelsey Museum publications, 7. Ann Arbor, MI: Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, 2014. viii, 192 p. $24.95 (pb). ISBN 9780974187396.

**Willms, Lothar. Transgression, Tragik und Metatheater: Versuch einer Neuinterpretation des antiken Dramas. DRAMA - Studien zum antiken Drama und seiner Rezeption, 13. Tübingen: Narr Verlag, 2014. xiv, 934 p. € 128.00 (pb). ISBN 9783823368281.

Again Available

*Sommerstein, Alan H. (ed., comm.). Menander: Samia (The woman from Samos). Cambridge Greek and Latin classics. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. xii, 367 p. $99.00. ISBN 9780521514286.

Still Available

**Althoff, Jochen, Sabine Föllinger and Georg Wöhrle (edd.). Antike Naturwissenschaften und ihre Rezeption, Band XXIV. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2014. 186 p. € 24.50. ISBN 9783868215397.

*Amedick, Rita, Heide Froning and Winfried Held (edd.). Marburger Winckelmann-Programm 2014. Marburger Winckelmann-Programm, 2014. Marburg: Eigenverlag des Archäologischen Seminars der Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2014. v, 162 p. € 89.00. ISBN 9783818505134.

*Bielfeldt, Ruth (ed.). Ding und Mensch in der Antike: Gegenwart und Vergegenwärtigung. Akademiekonferenzen, 16. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. 377 p. € 58.00. ISBN 9783825362744.

*Bowditch, P. Lowell (ed., comm.). A Propertius reader: eleven selected elegies. BC Latin readers. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xliv, 186 p. $19.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865167230.

*Burri, Renate. Die "Geographie" des Ptolemaios im Spiegel der griechischen Handschriften. Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 110. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2013. x, 597 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110280166.

*Colesanti, Giulio and Manuela Giordano (edd.). Submerged literature in ancient Greek culture: an introduction. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. x, 229 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110333961.

*Dalla Rosa, Alberto. Cura et tutela: le origini del potere imperiale sulle province proconsolari. Historia - Einzelschriften, Bd 227. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 362 p. € 68.00. ISBN 9783515106023.

*Eneix, Linda C. (ed.). Archaeoacoustics: the archaeology of sound. Publication of the 2014 conference in Malta, including reports from the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum Acoustics Project. Myakka City, FL: OTS Foundation, 2014. 271 p. $49.50 (pb). ISBN 9781497591264.

*Gerousi-Bendermacher, Eugenia. Sepulkralkultur auf der Insel Thera (Santorin): der spätantike Friedhof in Perissa und seine Ausgrabungsfunde unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Tonlampen. Marburger Beiträge zur Archäologie, Bd 1. Marburg: Eigenverlag des Archäologischen Seminars der Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2013. 221 p. € 98.00. ISBN 9783818505103.

**Gurtler, Gary M. and William Wians (edd.). Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, vol. XXIX. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. x, 228 p. € 95.00. ISBN 9789004268364.

*Hammond, Carolyn J.-B. (ed., trans.). Confessions. Volume I: Books 1-8. Loeb Classical Library, 26. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. lxv, 413 p. $26.00. ISBN 9780674996854.

*Hayes, Evan and Stephen Nimis. Lucian's A true story: an intermediate Greek reader (revised Aug. 2014; first edition 2011). Oxford, OH: Faenum Publishing, 2014. x, 191 p. $13.95 (pb). ISBN 9780983222804.

*Henry, W. B. and P. J. Parsons (edd., trans., comm.). The Oxyrhynchus papyri. Volume LXXIX, [N° 5183-5218]. Graeco-Roman memoirs, 100. London: Egypt exploration society, 2014. x, 220 p.; viii p. of plates. $170.00. ISBN 9780856982194.

*Heßler, Jan Erik (ed., trans., comm.). Epikur, Brief an Menoikeus: Edition, Übersetzung, Einleitung und Kommentar. Schwabe Epicurea, 4. Basel: Schwabe Verlag, 2014. 378 p. € 24.85. ISBN 9783796532139.

*Laidlaw, Anne and Marco Salvatore Stella. The House of Sallust in Pompeii (VI 2, 4). JRA supplementary series, 98. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2014. 283 p., 12 p. of plates. $109.00. ISBN 9780991373024.

*Layne, Danielle A. and Harold Tarrant (edd.). The Neoplatonic Socrates. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. vi, 256 p. $75.00. ISBN 9780812246292.

*Olivito, Riccardo. Il foro nell'atrio: immagini di architetture, scene di vita e di mercato nel fregio dai Praedia di Iulia Felix (Pompei, II, 4, 3). Bibliotheca Archaeologica, 31. Bari: Edipuglia, 2013. 292 p. € 70.00 (pb). ISBN 9788872287019.

*Petrain, David. Homer in stone: the Tabulae Iliacae in their Roman context. Greek culture in the Roman world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiii, 260 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107029811.

*Polla, Silvia and Philip Verhagen (edd.). Computational approaches to the study of movement in archaeology: theory, practice and interpretation of factors and effects of long term landscape formation and transformation. Topoi, 23. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. v, 137 p. € 79.95. ISBN 9783110288315.

*Rapelli, Giovanni. Il latino dei primi secoli (IX-VII a.C.) e l'etrusco. ItaliAteneo. Roma: Società Editrice Romana, 2013. x, 229 p. € 18.00 (pb). ISBN 9788889291214.

*Robinson, Elizabeth C. (ed.). Papers on Italian urbanism in the first millennium B.C.. JRA supplementary series, 97. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2014. 242 p. $99.00. ISBN 9780991373017.

*Savay-Guerraz, Hugues, Christian Thioc, Jean-Michel Degeule and Marie-Noëlle Baudrand. Le musée gallo-romain de Lyon. Lyon: Fage éditions, 2013. 127 p. € 14.50 (pb). ISBN 9782849753224.

*Sommerstein, Alan H. and Thomas H. Talboy (trans., comm.). Sophocles: selected fragmentary plays, volume II. The Epigoni, Oenomaus, Palamedes, The arrival of Nauplius, Nauplius and the Beacon, The Shepherds, Triptolemus. Aris & Phillips classical texts. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2012. vii, 294 p. £ 50.00 (pb). ISBN 9780856688928.

*Sykes, Naomi. Beastly questions: animal answers to archaeological issues. New York; London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. xvi, 221 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781472506757.

*Thommen, Lukas. Die Wirtschaft Spartas. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014. 191 p. € 39.00. ISBN 9783515106757.

*Torrijos-Castrillejo, David. Anaxágoras y su recepción en Aristóteles. Dissertationes. Series philosophica, 43. Roma: Edizioni Santa Croce, 2014. 528 p. € 26.00 (pb). ISBN 9788883333255.

**Van Dusen, David. The space of time: a sensualist interpretation of time in Augustine, Confessions X to XII. Supplements to the study of time, 6. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2014. xvi, 360 p. € 135.00. ISBN 9789004266865.

*Weineck, Silke-Maria. The tragedy of fatherhood: King Laius and the politics of paternity in the West. New directions in German studies, 9. New York; London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. x, 208 p. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 9781628927894.

*Whittaker, Helène. Religion and society in Middle Bronze Age Greece. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xiv, 291 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107049871.

*Zwierlein, Otto. Die Urfassungen der Martyria Polycarpi et Pionii und das Corpus Polycarpianum (2 vols.). Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte, Bd 116/1-2. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. xx, 194 p.; xii, 425 p. € 149.95. ISBN 9783110371000.

**Angelidi, Christina and George T. Calofonos (edd.). Dreaming in Byzantium and beyond. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. xci, 232 p. $119.95. ISBN 9781409400554.

*Arcuri, Rosalba. Moderatio: problematiche economiche e dinamiche sociali nel principato di Tiberio. Antiquitas, 33. Milano: Editoriale Jouvence, 2014. 505 p. € 36.00 (pb). ISBN 9788878014367.

*Baumann, Alexander. Freiheitsbeschränkungen der Dekurionen in der Spätantike. Sklaverei - Knechtschaft - Zwangsarbeit, Bd 12. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 2014. vii, 231 p. € 39.80 (pb). ISBN 9783487151540.

*Bonnekoh, Pamela. Die figürlichen Malereien in Thessaloniki vom Ende des 4. bis zum 7. Jahrhundert. Neue Untersuchungen zur erhaltenen Malereiausstattung zweier Doppelgräber, der Agora und der Demetrios-Kirche. Nea Polis, Bd 1. Oberhausen: ATHENA-Verlag, 2013. 564 p., [80] p. of plates. € 98.00 (pb). ISBN 9783898965644.

*Dietsche, Uwe. Strategie und Philosophie bei Seneca: Untersuchungen zur therapeutischen Technik in den Epistulae morales. Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Bd 329. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. ix, 298 p. € 109.95. ISBN 9783110349047.

*Ebbesen, Sten'Bloch, David, Jakob Leth Fink, Heine Hansen and Ana María Mora-Márquez. History of philosophy in reverse: reading Aristotle through the lenses of scholars from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. Scientia Danica. Series H, Humanistica, 8, vol. 7; Publications of the Centre for the Aristotelian Tradition, 3. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2014. 220 p. (pb). ISBN 9788773043790.

*Ewegen, S. Montgomery. Plato's Cratylus: the comedy of language. Studies in Continental thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014. xvii, 227 p. $36.00. ISBN 9780253010445.

*Flower, Harriet I. (ed.). The Cambridge companion to the Roman Republic. Second edition (first edition published 2004). Cambridge companions to the ancient world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xli, 476 p. $42.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107669420.

*Frood, Elizabeth and Rubina Raja (edd.). Redefining the sacred: religious architecture and text in the Near East and Egypt, 1000 BC - AD 300. Contextualizing the sacred, 1. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2014. xx, 260 p. € 80.00. ISBN 9782503541044.

*Gasti, Fabio and Fabrizio Bordone (intr.; trans., comm.). Eutropio. Storia di Roma. Grandi classici greci latini. Rusconi Libri, 2014. lviii, 449 p. € 11.90 (pb). ISBN 9788818030235.

*Gillis, Anne-Catherine (ed.). Corps, travail et statut social: l'apport de la paléoanthropologie funéraire aux sciences historiques. Archaiologia. Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2014. 209 p. € 24.00 (pb). ISBN 9782757407677.

*Harter-Uibopuu, Kaja and Thomas Kruse. Sport und Recht in der Antike. Wiener Kolloquien zur Antiken Rechtsgeschichte, 2. Wien: Verlag Holzhausen, 2014. xii, 405 p. € 85.00. ISBN 9783902976147.

*Kolb, Anne (ed.). Infrastruktur und Herrschaftsorganisation im Imperium Romanum. Herrschaftsstrukturen und Herrschaftspraxis III: Akten der Tagung in Zürich 19. - 20.10.2012. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. 279 p. $70.00. ISBN 9783050060316.

*Legarra Herrero, Borja. Mortuary behavior and social trajectories in pe- and protopalatial Crete. Prehistory monographs, 44. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xvii, 359 p.; [100] p. of tables and figures. $80.00. ISBN 9781931534741.

*LeVen, Pauline A. The many-headed muse: tradition and innovation in late classical Greek lyric poetry. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. x, 377 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107018532.

**Luijendijk, AnneMarie. Forbidden Oracles?: The Gospel of the Lots of Mary. Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum / Studies and texts in antiquity and Christianity, 89. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. xii, 208 p. € 69.00 (pb). ISBN 9783161528590.

*Luque Moreno, Jesús. Hablar y cantar: la música y el lenguaje (concepciones antiguas). Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada, 2014. 476 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9788433856500.

*Maiullari, Franco. Un sogno in scena: come rappresentare l'Edipo Re di Sofocle. Filosofie del teatro, 17. Milano; Udine: Mimesis Edizioni, 2014. 240 p. € 22.00 (pb). ISBN 9788857523033.

*March, Jennifer R. Dictionary of classical mythology (illustrated by Neil Barrett) (second edition; first edition published 1998). Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2014. xiii, 528 p. $49.95 (pb). ISBN 9781782976356.

*Martínez Sariego, Mónica María. Horacio en Alberto Lista: la impronta horaciana en el corpus teórico y en la obra poética de Alberto Lista. Alfar Universidad, 195. Sevilla: Ediciones Alfar, 2014. 184 p. € 13.00 (pb). ISBN 9788478985494.

**Nesselrath, Arnold. Der Zeichner und sein Buch: die Darstellung der antiken Architektur im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Cyriacus. Studien zur Rezeption der Antike, 5. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. 224 p. € 58.00. ISBN 9783447101936.

*Nickel, Rainer (ed., trans.). Antike Kritik an der Stoa: lateinisch, griechisch, deutsch. Sammlung Tusculum. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. 645 p. € 69.95. ISBN 9783050062822.

*Platts, Hannah, John Pearce, Caroline Barron, Jason Lundock and Justin Yoo (edd.). TRAC 2013: proceedings of the twenty-third annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference which took place at King's College, London, 4-6 April 2013. Oxford; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2014. 173 p. $60.00 (pb). ISBN 9781782976905.

*Polansky, Ronald (ed.). The Cambridge companion to Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. Cambridge companions to philosophy. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xii, 474 p. $36.99 (pb). ISBN 9780521122733.

*Ruggiu, Luigi. Parmenide: Nostos. L'essere e gli enti. Edizione rivista e ampliata (first published 1975). La scala e l'album, 14. Milano; Udine: Mimesis Edizioni, 2014. 516 p. € 32.00 (pb). ISBN 9788857523811.

*Severy-Hoven, Beth. The Satyrica of Petronius: an intermediate reader with commentary and guided review. Oklahoma series in classical culture, 50. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014. xix, 312 p. $24.95 (pb). ISBN 9780806144382.

**Thür, Gerhard. Grabrituale: Tod und Jenseits in Frühgeschichte und Alterum. Akten der 3. Tagung des Zentrums Archäologie und Altertumswissenschaften an der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Bd 467. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2014. 210 p. € 62.00 (pb). ISBN 9783700175803.

*Tully, John A. N. Z. The island standard: the classical, Hellenistic, and Roman coinages of Paros. Numismatic studies, 28. New York: American Numismatic Society, 2013. xiv, 206 p., 27 p. of plates. $120.00. ISBN 9780897223294.

*Varga, Rada. The Peregrini of Roman Dacia. Cluj-Napoca: Megqa Publishing House, 2014. 168 p. ISBN 9786065434042.

*Von Albrecht, Michael. Ovids Metamorphosen: Texte, Themen, Illustrationen. Heidelberger Studienhefte zur Altertumswissenschaft. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. 262 p. € 28.00. ISBN 9783825363208.

*Waterfield, Robin. Taken at the flood: the Roman conquest of Greece. Ancient warfare and civilization. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xix, 287 p. $27.95. ISBN 9780199916894.

*Wessels, Antje. Ästhetisierung und ästhetische Erfahrung von Gewalt: eine Untersuchung zu Senecas Tragödien. Bibliothek der klassischen Altertumswissenschaften, 137. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014. 272 p. € 42.00. ISBN 9783825360849.

*Worthington, Ian. By the spear: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the rise and fall of the Macedonian Empire. Ancient warfare and civilization. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. xxi, 388 p. $34.95. ISBN 9780199929863.

*Bernardini, Paola Angeli (ed.). La città greca: gli spazi condivisi. Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi sulla Grecità Antica, Urbino, 26-27 settembre 2012. Quaderni Urbinati di cultura classica, 10. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2014. 178 p. € 58.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862276504.

*Bertrand-Dagenbach, Cécile and Agnès Molinier Arbo (ed., trans., comm.; ed.). Histoire auguste. Tome III. 2e partie, Vie d'Alexandre Sévère. Collection des Universités de France. Série latine, 406. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. xcviii, 185 p. € 55.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251014661.

*Blonski, Michel. Se nettoyer à Rome (IIe siècle avant J.-C. - IIe siècle après J.-C.): pratiques et enjeux. Collection d'études anciennes. Série latine, 77. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. 412 p., [8] p. of plates. € 45.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251328911.

*Böckh, August. Encyclopédie et méthodologie des sciences philologiques: première partie principale (édité, présenté et traduit par Marie-Dominique Richard). Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2013. 309 p. € 29.00 (pb). ISBN 9783896656223.

*Brouwers, Josho. Henchmen of Ares: warriors and warfare in early Greece. Ancient warfare special, 4. Rotterdam: Karwansaray Publishers, 2013. v, 203 p. € 29.95. ISBN 9789490258078.

*Carrive, Mathilde, Marie-Adeline Le Guennec and Lucia Rossi (edd.). Aux sources de la Méditerranée antique. Héritages méditerranéens. Aix-en-Provence: Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2014. 282 p. € 28.00 (pb). ISBN 9782853999281.

*Cerutti, Steven M. (ed., comm.). Cicero: Pro Archia poeta oratio. Third edition. Annotated Latin collection. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xxxi, 157 p. $29.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865168053.

*Chang-Ruey, Lin. Un dossier fiscal hermopolitain d'époque romaine. Bibliothèque générale. Paris: Institut française d'archéologie orientale, 2014. 450 p. € 29.00. ISBN 9782724706499.

*Cobbold, G. B. (trans.). The right thing to do: Cicero's De officiis. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2014. xxvi, 289 p. $15.00 (pb). ISBN 9780865168244.

*Cullen, Tracey, Lauren E. Talalay, Donald R. Keller, Lia Karimali and William R. Farrand. The prehistory of the Paximadi peninsula, Euboea. Prehistory monographs, 40. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2013. xxvi, 161 p. $70.00. ISBN 9781931534703.

*Day, Leslie Preston and Kevin T. Glowacki. Kavousi IIB: the late Minoan IIIC settlement at Vronda: the buildings on the periphery (edited by Geraldine C. Gesell and Leslie Preston Day). Prehistory monographs, 39. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2012. xxx, 195 p., [212] p. of plates. $80.00. ISBN 9781931534697.

**Dunsch, Boris and Kai Ruffing (edd.). Herodots Quellen - Die Quellen Herodots. Classica et orientalia, Bd 6. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2013. viii, 352 p. € 58.00. ISBN 9783447068840.

*Efstratiou, Nicholas, Alexandra Karetsou and Maria Ntinou (edd.). The neolithic settlement of Knossos in Crete: new evidence for the early occupation of Crete and the Aegean islands. Prehistory monographs, 42. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: INSTAP Academic Press, 2013. xxviii, 217 p. $80.00. ISBN 9781931534727.

*Estangüi Gomez, Raul. Byzance face aux Ottomans: exercice du pouvoir et contrôle du territoire sous les derniers Paléologues (milieu XIVe-milieu XVe siècle). Byzantina Sorbonensia 28. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2014. x, 665 p. € 40.00 (pb). ISBN 9782859447731.

*Faustinelli, Claudio. Dall'inganno di Ulisse all'arco di Apollo: sul testo e l'interpretazione di Lucil. 836 M. Memorie dell'Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, serie V, 37, fasc. 1. Torino: Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, 2014. 57 p. € 8.00 ISBN 9788890866913.

*Fink, Dennis L. The Battle of Marathon in scholarship: research, theories and controversies since 1850. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, Inc., Publishers, 2014. vii, 229 p. $45.00 (pb). ISBN 9780786479733.

**Fournet, J.-L. and A. Tihon. Conformément aux observations d'Hipparque: le Papyrus Fouad inv. 267 A. Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain, 67. Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2014. iv, 190 p. € 50.00. ISBN 9789042930216.

*Fromentin, Valérie and Estelle Bertrand (edd., trans., comm.). Dion Cassius, Histoire romaine. Livre 47. Collection des Universités de France. Série grecque, 505. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. cv, 138 p. € 53.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251005898.

*Funari, Rodolfo (ed.). Corpus dei papiri storici greci e latini. Parte B. Storici latini. 2. Adespota. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2014. 176 p. € 120.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862276221.

**Günther, Linda-Marie. Bürgerinnen und ihre Familien im hellenistischen Milet: Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Frauen und Mädchen in der Polis-Öffentlichkeit. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. vi, 337 p. € 78.00. ISBN 9783447100205.

*Hawkins, Tom. Iambic poetics in the Roman Empire. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xi, 334 p. $99.00. ISBN 9781107012080.

**Herrmann, Uwe. Anthropos Deinos: zur Rolle der Gewalt in der griechischen Archaik im Spiegel der epischen und lyrischen Dichtung. Antike Kultur und Geschichte, Bd 15. Berlin; Münster: LIT Verlag, 2014. ix, 440 p. € 59.90. ISBN 9783643125255.

**Hild, Friedrich. Meilensteine, Straßen und das Verkehrsnetz der Provinz Karia. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Bd 464; Veröffentlichungen zur Byzanzforschung, Bd 33. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2014. 104 p. € 29.10 (pb). ISBN 9783700174356.

*Hope Simpson, Richard. Mycenaean Messenia and the kingdom of Pylos. Prehistory monographs, 45. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2014. xviii, 84 p. [12] p. of maps and plates. $60.00. ISBN 9781931534758.

**Ingemark, Dominic. Glass, alcohol and power in Roman Iron Age Scotland. Edinburgh: National Museums Scotland, 2014. 300 p. £ 35.00 (pb). ISBN 9781905267811.

*Inwood, Brad. Ethics after Aristotle. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. x, 166 p. $39.95. ISBN 9780674731257.

*Kennedy, Rebecca Futo. Immigrant women in Athens: gender, ethnicity, and citizenship in the classical city. Routledge studies in ancient history, 6. New York; London: Routledge, 2014. xiii, 177 p. $125.00. ISBN 9780415737869.

*Kruse, Ulf. Ludwig Ross (1806-1859): der Holsteiner und sein Familienkreis. Eine kultur-, wissenschafts- und regionalgeschichtliche Studie. Reihe Geschichte, Bd 6. Düsseldorf: Wellem Verlag, 2014. xiv, 449 p. € 61.00. ISBN 9783941820135.

*Laudenbach, Benoît and Jehan Desanges (ed., trans.; comm.). Strabon. Géographie. Tome XV, Livre XVII. 2e partie: L'Afrique de l'Atlantique au golfe de Soloum. Collection des Universités de France. Série grecque, 504. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. xxviii, 262 p. € 45.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251005881.

*Lelli, Emanuele. Folklore antico e moderno: una proposta di ricerca sulla cultura popolare greca e romana. Filologia e critica, 99. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2014. 272 p. € 84.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862276788. *Luna, Concetta and Alain-Philippe Segonds (edd., trans., comm.). Proclus, Commentaire sur le Parménide de Platon. Tome V, livre V. Collection des Universités de France. Série grecque, . Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014. cii, 304 p. € 63.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251005904.

*Marshall, Tina (trans.). Coluccio Salutati: On the world and religious life. The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 62. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. xix, 391 p. $29.95. ISBN 9780674055148.

**Morelli, Ulisse. Domiziano: fine di una dinastia. Philippika, 71. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. 346 p. € 74.00 (pb). ISBN 9783447101899.

*Polemis, Ioannis (ed.). Michael Psellus, Orationes funebres, Volumen I. Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, 2013. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. xxi, 263 p. $112.00. ISBN 9783110347050.

*Pollet, G. and G. Van Damme. Corpus topographicum Indiae antiquae. Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta, 228. Leuven; Paris; Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2014. xiii, 83 p. € 95.00. ISBN 9789042929135.

*Raphals, Lisa. Divination and prediction in early China and ancient Greece. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. xxviii, 470 p. $120.00. ISBN 9781107010758.

*Ricciardetto, Antonio (ed., trans., comm.). L'Anonyme de Londres: un papyrus médical grec du Ier siècle. Papyrologica Leodiensia, 4. Liège: Presses Universitaires de Liège, 2014. lxviii, 155 p. € 55.00 (pb). ISBN 9782875620477.

*Roman, Luke. Giovanni Gioviano Pontano: On married love; Eridanus. The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 63. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. xxvii, 385 p. $29.95. ISBN 9780674728660.

*Rusten, Jeffrey and Jason König (edd., trans.). Philostratus. Heroicus, Gymnasticus, Discourses 1 and 2. Loeb Classical Library, 521. Cambridge. MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2014. 532 p. $26.00. ISBN 9780674996748.

*Salanitro, Giovanni. Scritti di filologia greca e latina. Catania: C.U.E.C.M., 2014. 358 p. € 30.00 (pb). ISBN 9788866001133.

*Schmidt, Stefan and Matthias Steinhart (edd.). Sammeln und Erforschen: griechische Vasen in neuzeitlichen Sammlungen. Beihefte zum Corpus vasorum antiquorum, Bd 6. München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 2014. 174 p. € 59.90. ISBN 9783406664007.

*Schwartz, Seth. The ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad. Key themes in ancient history. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. xi, 190 p. $29.99 (pb). ISBN 9781107669291.

*Sève, Michel and Patrice Schlosser (edd.). Cyzique, cité majeure et méconnue de la Propontide antique. Centre de Recherche Universitaire Lorrain d'Histoire, Université de Lorraine, 51. Metz: Centre de Recherche Universitaire Lorrain d'Histoire, 2014. 380 p. € 25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782857300588.

*Slavitt, David R. (trans., comm.). Odes / Horace. Wisconsin studies in classics. Madison; London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014. xiv, 184 p. $12.95 (pb). ISBN 9780299298548.

*Spaltenstein, François (comm.). Commentaire des fragments dramatiques de Naevius. Colelction Latomus, 344. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus, 2014. 708 p. € 99.00 (pb). ISBN 9782870312919.

*Stuttard, David (ed.). Looking at Medea: essays and a translation of Euripides' tragedy. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. xi, 219 p. $32.95 (pb). ISBN 9781472530516.

*Tietz, Werner. Dilectus ciborum: Essen im Diskurs der römischen Antike. Hypomnemata, Bd 193. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013. 408 p. $132.00. ISBN 9783525253014.

*Travaini, Lucia and Giampiera Arrigoni (edd.). Polis, urbs, civitas, moneta e identità. Atti del convegno di studio del Lexicon Iconographicum Numismaticae (Milano 25 ottobre 2012). Monete, 6. Roma: Edizioni Quasar, 2013. 242 p. € 28.00 (pb). ISBN 9788871405377.

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Tuesday, September 30, 2014


Duncan Fishwick, Cult Places and Cult Personnel in the Roman Empire. Variorum collected studies series, CS1039. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 2014. Pp. xii, 378. ISBN 9781472414731. $170.00.

Reviewed by Nicolas Laubry, Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne (

Version at BMCR home site


Ce recueil d'articles, qui fait suite à un premier publié il y a deux ans chez le même éditeur,1 regroupe 21 textes écrits entre 1979 et 2011 consacrés à la religion romaine et au culte de l'empereur dans l'Occident romain. Ceux-ci s'organisent autour de deux thématiques principales : d'une part—et principalement—les lieux de culte, leur topographie, leur aspect ou leur statut ; d'autre part, les acteurs du culte impérial.

L'auteur revendique une méthode qu'il qualifie d'« inductive » et la perspective est délibérement analytique. Ces études de cas reposent sur une connaissance poussée des dossiers et du fonctionnement de la religion romaine, qui ont conduit l'auteur à élaborer des schémas d'interprétation, notamment sur certains développements du culte, qui sous-tendent une partie des démonstrations contenues dans ces articles. Pour les trouver de manière plus synthétique et explicite, on devra donc se reporter à la somme The Imperial Cult in the Latin West.2 L'étendue de la matière traitée dans ce recueil interdit toute discussion détaillée du contenu. En voici par conséquent un bref aperçu avant quelques observations plus spécifiques.

Le recueil est organisé géographiquement et les cinq premiers articles sont centrés sur Rome. Le premier reprend la question du statut et des rôles des temples du divin Auguste, sur le forum et sur le Palatin, et conclut que le second était tout à fait secondaire ; vient ensuite une étude sur la statue de César du Panthéon d'Agrippa, que D. Fishwick interprète comme honorifique et non cultuelle, interdisant selon lui l'idée d'une vocation dynastique du temple. Il remet aussi en doute, après d'autres, l'existence d'un temple à Vesta sur le Palatin (III). Le quatrième article, qui s'intéresse aux implications idéologiques du temple de Mars Ultor, est surtout un examen du relief de l'autel de Carthage conservé à Alger et de l'hypothèse qu'il reproduirait le groupe cultuel du temple. Le dernier texte de cet ensemble propose de considérer l'Ara Prouidentiae comme un monument érigé non pour célébrer l'adoption de Tibère, mais, en passant par la confrontation avec un monument de Mérida, comme un autel célébrant le discernement d'Auguste dans le choix de ses successeurs depuis Agrippa.

Suivent deux brèves sections : l'une, sur l'Italie, comporte un examen du texte transcrivant les honneurs décrétés par les Artemisioi de Naples à L. Munatius Hilarianus (AE 1913, 134) que D. Fishwick rapproche, d'une manière un peu spéculative de son aveu même, de ceux rendus aux empereurs. Ce texte est suivi d'un nouvel examen de l'inscription pompéienne de Mamia (CIL X, 816) : comme I. Gradel, il refuse la restitution d'une dédicace au Genius Augusti, remplacé par le Genius coloniae. L'examen de l'ensemble de la documentation lui permet ainsi d'affirmer, en opposition à la thèse de L. R. Taylor, que le culte public du Genius de l'empereur n'est pas attesté dans l'Italie romaine.

La troisième section se limite à un article sur la Bretagne (VIII) et examine le complexe du culte impérial provincial à Camulodunum dans une perspective comparatiste avec les autres sanctuaires connus en Occident. En dépit de sources littéraires et épigraphiques quasi-inexistantes, celui-ci se révèle assez bien connu—si du moins on fait la part de l'interprétation archéologique.

La quatrième section de l'ouvrage est vouée à la Gaule. Deux textes reprennent le cursus lacunaire d'une inscription du territoire de Valence (voir désormais ILN Valence, 63). L'analyse est probante et digne d'intérêt puisqu'elle révèle que des citoyens de la colonie pouvaient devenir prêtres du culte impérial à l'autel du Confluent, à Lyon. L'unique texte rédigé en français (X) reprend le témoignage des monnaies pour déterminer l'apparence de ce monument. Dans l'ensemble, l'interprétation des différents éléments (couronnes, victoires, lauriers etc.) est convaincante. Toutefois, l'identification des objets reposant sur l'autel comme des bustes de l'empereur et de sa famille effectivement dressés sur la table de l'autel ne convainc guère : comme l'avait déjà vu R. Turcan, celle-ci ne porte généralement rien et on peut se demander quels membres de la famille d'Auguste auraient été choisis pour être ainsi représentés. La démonstration (XI) pour fixer la date de la dédicace de l'autel fédéral le 1er août 12 av. J.-C. (Liv., Per., 139 contre Suet., Claud., 2,1, qui la place en 10 av. J.-C., année de naissance de Claude) est nuancée et recevable, même si elle ne règle pas tous les problèmes posés. Le dernier texte est un réexamen du cursus de T. Trebonius Rufus (voir désormais PIR 2, VIII/1, T 316). Originaire de Tolosa, ce chevalier, dont D. Fishwick suppose qu'il occupa des postes procuratoriens passés sous silence, fut surtout, sous Vespasien, le premier prêtre du culte provincial de Narbonnaise, avant de se retirer à Athènes. Ce texte est donc de première importance pour renforcer la thèse de l'instauration du culte provincial de Narbonne par Vespasien.

L'Espagne fait l'objet de la cinquième section. Les quatre articles réunis traitent surtout, par des biais différents, des problèmes posés par l'identification des sanctuaires municipaux et provinciaux du culte impérial à Tarraco, Emerita Augusta et Corduba. La question est rendue délicate par l'absence d'éléments déterminants, mais les fouilles récentes, évoquées dans plusieurs appendices, ont permis de faire avancer la réflexion. Au-delà des questions de topographie, D. Fishwick revient sur le problème de l'existence d'une distinction entre « forum provincial » et « forum municipal » qui avait été niée par W.Trillmich. On ne peut qu'adhérer à l'idée que cette dichotomie, fréquente dans la littérature archéologique et probablement avérée à Tarragone, n'a rien d'universel. Les espaces réservés aux cérémonies et aux manifestations du culte provincial n'étaient pas nécessairement confinés en un centre unique : chronologie et contexte sont à prendre en compte. Les deux dernières études sont épigraphiques. L'une reprend le commentaire de deux inscriptions mentionnant des prêtres provinciaux de Lusitanie, CIL II, 473 et CIL II, 5264. On remarquera toutefois que, dans la première, le statut pérégrin du flamine Albinus Albui f. est en définitive peu probable, malgré la dénomination inscrite ; dans la seconde, qui est une dédicace à Titus, rien n'indique que le buste qu'elle accompagnait avait un usage cultue : de ce fait, en faire avec D. Fishwick une preuve de l'élargissement du culte aux empereurs vivants est sans doute excessif et le parallèle dressé avec l'évolution décelable dans les autres centres provinciaux est à cet égard plus probant. Le risque de trop pousser parfois l'interprétation d'inscriptions lacunaires apparaît plus nettement dans le dernier article de la section (XVIII) sur la dédicace à L. Cornelius Bocchus : la restitution de la fonction de curator templi diui Augusti, associée par les premiers éditeurs à l'édification du temple de Mérida et que D. Fishwick préfère mettre en rapport avec la « marmorization » du sanctuaire (?), est en fait très douteuse comme le montre la proposition de J. C. Saquete, citée en appendice qui en fait un élément de la titulature du légat Fulcinius Trio.

À cet ensemble succède un article (XIX) sur l'aire sacrée de Gorsium (Pannonie inférieure), qui fut parfois identifiée comme centre du culte impérial de la province mais que D. Fishwick, après d'autres, interprète plutôt comme un complexe associant plusieurs divinités « orientales », dont Jupiter Dolichenus.

La dernière section s'ouvre par une étude sur la relation entre les représentations monétaires de monuments et la réalité archéologique, qui est au cœur de certaines de ses démonstrations (Lyon, Tarragone, etc.). Il y adopte une attitude prudente et nuancée, soulignant l'emphase et les conventions de ces images, tout en mettant en valeur la représentation ponctuelle de monuments jamais édifiés. L'ensemble se clôt par un examen du devenir des prêtres provinciaux d'Occident après l'exercice de leur sacerdoce : contrairement à une idée reçue, l'ascension sociale est rare, et la poursuite d'une carrière procuratorienne ou l'intégration à l'ordre sénatorial sont plutôt des exceptions.

Le champ couvert par ces études est donc large et les démonstrations sont menées souvent de manière très serrée : leur intérêt pour les historiens de la religion romaine est donc notable, mais plusieurs points méritent d'être relevés.

En premier lieu, le travail éditorial laisse parfois à désirer. Certes, le recueil est pourvu d'utiles indices des noms et des lieux. Pourtant, on aurait pu souhaiter une pagination continue et plus de soin apporté à la reproduction des textes. À deux reprises (VIII, 51 et X, 111-112) l'éditeur a copié des pages d'articles tiers appartenant aux publications originelles ! Par ailleurs, le choix d'une organisation chronologique des textes à l'intérieur du cadre géographique est loin d'être heureux : il conduit par exemple à dissocier les deux études sur le prêtre de Valence.

Plus fondamentalement, on aurait pu s'attendre à un travail de mise à jour : or, celui-ci est très inégal. Neuf appendices ont été ajoutés, mais soit ils redoublent le propos de l'article (XXI), soit leur agencement est peu efficace. Ainsi, ils sont presque systématiques pour les dossiers des fouilles récentes à Tarragone, Mérida et Cordoue : n'aurait-il pas été judicieux de ne composer qu'un seul appendice, pour éviter les redites—d'autant qu'une partie de ces données est désormais synthétisée dans le tome III, 2 de The Imperial Cult… ?

En outre, certains articles auraient nécessité eux aussi une mise à jour bibliographique malheureusement absente. Pour ne citer que quelques exemples, la question de la localisation et du statut des temples du divin Auguste à Rome ne peut plus faire l'économie d'une discussion sur les données des fouilles de la Meta Sudans, qui ont peut-être livré les vestiges du sacrarium Augusti, probablement restauré par Claude. 3 On peut certes contester les hypothèses—pourtant séduisantes—qui ont été avancées, mais il eût été honnête de les signaler. De même, si l'omission du bel article de A. Bresson sur l'inscription d'Hilarianus4 ou de celui de S. Lefebvre sur les flamines de Lusitanie5 ne sont pas dommageables pour le propos, l'absence de référence à la relecture par C. Letta de l'inscription de Mamia, qui tendrait, à partir de parallèles probants, à confirmer la restitution du Genius Augusti à Pompéi, est beaucoup plus gênante.6 Dans un champ si vaste où les connaissances sont surtout tributaires de l'accroissement de la documentation ou de sa révision, ce sont des oublis qui peuvent avoir des conséquences sur l'interprétation d'ensemble, dans la mesure où D. Fishwick, qui souhaite rester au plus près des sources, construit son propos par une constante mise en relation des cas spécifiques qu'il examine.

En définitive, on peut donc s'interroger sur l'utilité non pas de ces études—elle est indéniable—mais de ce recueil. Sans les compléments bibliographiques et critiques que l'on est en droit d'attendre d'un volume de scripta varia et à l'heure où nombre de périodiques sont désormais disponibles sur le web (cela concerne ici plus de la moitié des textes), les bibliothèques pourront à bon droit se demander si l'acquisition de ce volume constitue une dépense nécessaire, et c'est regrettable.


1.   D. Fishwick, Cult, Ritual, Divinity and Belief in the Roman World, Farnham, Burlington, Ashgate Publishing, 2012.
2.   D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, Leiden, New York, 1987-2005, 8 vol.
3.   Cl. Panella (dir.), Meta Sudans, 1, Roma, 1996, p. 136 sq. ; F. Coarelli, Palatium, Roma, 2012, p. 87 sq.
4.   A. Bresson, « The chorai of Munatius Hilarianus or Neapolitan Phratries as Collegia », Mediterraneo Antico,16/1, 2013, p. 203-222.
5.   S. Lefebvre, « Q. (Lucceius Albinus), flamen provinciae Lusitaniae? L'origine sociale des flamines provinciaux de Lusitanie », in M. Navarro Caballero, S. Demougin (dir.), Élites hispaniques, Bordeaux, 2001, p. 217-239.
6.   C. Letta, « Novità epigrafiche sul culto del Genius Augusti in Italia », dans M. G. Angeli Bertinelli et A. Donati (éd.), Usi e abusi epigrafici. Atti del convegno internazionale…, Roma, 2003, p. 217-236.

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Stéphanie Paul, Cultes et sanctuaires de l'île de Cos. Kernos Supplément, 28. Liège: Presses Universitaires de Liège, 2013. Pp. 442. ISBN 9782875620293. €40.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Erica Morais-Angliker, University of Zurich; Birkbeck, University of London (

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Table of Contents

Cultes et sanctuaires de l'île de Cos, a monograph on the regional cults on Cos based on the author's 2011 doctoral thesis at the Université de Liège, has now been published as a supplement to Kernos (2013). Dealing with the cults from a religious point of view, Stéphanie Paul takes a fundamentally different approach from Susan M. Sherwin-White, author of a 1978 study of the island,1 which took a broader, more historical perspective. Paul also incorporates epigraphic evidence that was not available at the time of Sherwin-White's study.

Paul focuses on the Hellenistic period from the mid-fourth to the first century BC. Her chronological point of departure and reference is the synoecism of 366 BC, which brought the various communities of Cos together in the new capital, whose name is homonymous with that of the island. Synoecism demanded a reorganization of the local pantheon that would bring cohesion and identity to the new community. 2 Such a reorganization combined new religions and ancestral traditions, which are examined by Paul through two types of documents: the cult calendar (a chronological list of the sacrifices and celebrations taking place in the city) and regulations for public cults and the priest/priestess bound to them. Synoecism also established a new relationship between the recently created civic center of Cos and the demes. Paul expands our understanding of this phenomenon by examining local cults on the level of the demes (which may go back to earlier times) contrasting them with the central models offered by the cults held in the city of Cos.

Although archaeological remains (when available) enter her discussion, Paul relies mostly on epigraphic evidence, which is abundant for the Hellenistic period. She also draws on the meager sources that antedate the era of synoecism as well as on testimony from the Roman period in order to speculate, when possible, on the evolution of the cults. These sources, which privilege the city, certainly lead to a biased perception of the cults practiced on the island. Paul is aware of this problem, and she tries to minimize it through an interdisciplinary analysis of the cults and thus to examine interactions among various constituents, as well as the tributes offered by the demes, individuals, and families who organize the cults. To cite just one example, she discusses the festival of Zeus Soter and Athena Soteria in the 2nd century BC, which, founded by a private donation, was nonetheless regulated by the polis, while the priesthood was held by members of the founder's family.

The study contains seven chapters organized in two parts. Three appendices supplement the text with a translation of a calendar of the city's cults, a calendar of Cos, and a list of Coan divinities with their epiclesis. Part I offers analyses of the cults of Cos, and thus provides the basis for Part II, in which the function of polytheism on the local level is discussed.

In Chapter I, which presents the gods of the Coan pantheon, Paul stresses the prominence of Zeus, which is expressed through his various epicleses (Polieus, Phatrios, Boulaios, Patroios, Soter, etc.) and associations with divinities (Hera, Hestia, the Twelve Gods, Damos). As Paul demonstrates, one of Zeus's closest associations is with Athena, with whom he shares five epicleses. Of these the one that binds both gods with the polis is of great importance, as the author later makes clear in Chapter VI.3 She also offers a minute analysis of an inscription that refers to the festival of Zeus polieus, which took place in the month of Batromios, and notes that it culminated with the sacrifice of an ox selected through an elaborate process in which all subdivisions of the polis participated. In this chapter she also introduces the other divinities of the local pantheon, such as Apollo, worshiped with epicleses (Delios, Pythios and Karneios) that reveal ties to the world beyond Cos. Analyzing archaeological and epigraphic data, she concludes that the area of the agora and gymnasium held the most important cults of the city (e.g. Dionysos and Heracles), while that of the port contained at least three temples: Aphrodite Pandamos and Pontia, and Herakles Kallinikos.

In Chapter II, Paul examines the cult of Asclepios, whose sanctuary was not only of crucial importance to Cos but also had enormous international significance. Here, contrary to the other chapters, Paul does offer new analyses of documents that enable a re-evaluation of the cult. Given the cult's importance, however, it is crucial that the discussion present the cult of Asclepios in a synthetic way. The author discusses the divinities associated with Asclepios (Apollo, Hygieia and Epione, the Nymphes), the obscure origins of the cult in the first half of the fourth century BC, the vast architectural program that was funding Asclepieia by the third century BC, and the cult's importance in the Roman era.

In Chapter III, Paul offers evidence for the demos of Halasarna, which, though inhabited throughout the Geometric and Archaic periods and experiencing further growth in the Classical era, reached its peak only in the Hellenistic period, at the same time as the foundation of the new capital of Cos. As Paul shows, religious life in Halasarna centered on the cult of Apollo. A sanctuary excavated in the 1980s brought to light new inscriptions as well as structures from the Hellenistic period, among which at least one can be associated with the god. By examining the inscriptions, Paul is able to figure out the organization of the cult and to point out, among other things, that the calendar of the annual sacrifices by the priest of Apollo included cults celebrated by the demos for which there is no evidence in the city of Cos (Hecate, Artemis), and also that the demos had its own institutions (college of naopes, the timaques). Her reading of the calendar reveals that Apollo was likewise associated with several local cults of the demos. Finally, she posits that the singular cults practiced in Halasarna are vestiges of the pre- synoecist period. The community of Halasarna rendered homage to the gods of the city of Cos—Zeus Polieus, Athena Polias, Aphrodite Pandamos and the Soter divinities—next to those venerated by local cults.

In Chapter IV, Paul discusses the cults from the demos of Isthmos, on which was located Astypalaia, the central site of Cos before synoecism. Although it contains traces of a sanctuary that antedates synoecism (a temple of Demeter in Panagia Palatiani and the grotta of Aspripetra, where a cult of Pan and the Nymphs was held), little is known about the cults due to vast lacunas in the documents, particularly in what concerns the deme's calendar. Nevertheless these fragmentary documents mention the celebrations of divinities celebrated in the city of Cos—Aphrodite Pandamia and Hestia Phamia—which also occur in Halasarna. Paul shows how the cults offered to the local monarch parallel those celebrated in Cos. Among local cults are those of the Mother of the Gods, Apollo Oulios, Asklepios and Hygieia (the only cult of this sort celebrated outside the Asklepieion). In addition, Paul interprets an 11 BC inscription that commemorates the family foundation of a cult of Artemis, Zeus Hikesios, and the Theoi Patroioi.

In Chapter V, Paul describes the cults celebrated in four rural demes: Phyxa, Haleis, Hippia and Antimachia. These were poorly excavated, which may explain the dearth of inscriptions. The demos Aigelos, attested epigraphically, did not contain any documents significant for religious study. By examining this meager material, Paul was able to identify some of the cults and divinities worshipped in these demes. Although all her findings cannot be listed here, of particular note is a calendar from Phyxa, which refers to a sacrifice made to Zeus Soter and Athena Soteira, carried out merely fifteen days after the same gods were honored in the polis by a festival known as Pythocleia, which Paul interprets as an imitation of the religious life in the polis.

In Chapter VI, Paul examines the organization of the Coan pantheon and comes up with a profile of the divinities, relations amongst them, their hierarchy and their intervention in the community. She categorizes them according to their "areas of action."4 This model has its limits—as the author herself admits - particularly in what concerns the integration of all the pantheon's divinities and cults while relying on documents full of lacunae. This is the case of Apollo, for example, whose place in the Coan pantheon cannot be precisely defined. Paul also shows that although the configuration of the Coan pantheon is strongly marked by the local context, it can be inserted into a common system of representation in the general Greek pantheon. She relies on these similarities to compare the pantheon of Cos to the religious systems of other Greek cities. Although not all the Coan divinities analyzed by Paul can be discussed here, among the most remarkable ones is Zeus Polieus, whom she views as a divinity with the power to unify the city, and thus certainly helped integrate the various communities that came together in synoecism. She also argues that this god's domains were quite different from those of Aphrodite Pandamos, who too protected the city but on a more global scale and likewise watched over private aspects of life such as marriage and birth. In this chapter Paul also includes a fascinating discussion of tutelary divinities and the role of Asclepios and Zeus on Cos, in which she rejects the old assumption that Asclepios—despite his international importance—was the tutelary divinity of Cos; that role seems to have been reserved for Zeus.

Finally, in Chapter VII, Paul studies the sacrifices practiced on the island, basing her argument on the rich sources that deal with Cos. Unlike most scholars who have dealt with the subject, she approaches it not from a global or thematic perspective, but by analyzing the sacrifice within the local Coan pantheon. Analyses of such procedures are also crucial to the interpretation of the Coan pantheon itself, for sacrifices imply communication and reveal the reasons why Coans were invoking divinities and thus Paul's analyses shed light on the divinities' prerogatives.

All in all, Cultes et sanctuaires de l'île de Cos
is not only a great contribution to the study of religious life on Cos, but it also lays the ground for understanding polytheism in general as it explores the tension between local diversity and Panhellenic religion. Furthermore, by showing the intense participation of the polis in the organization of cults in Cos during the Hellenistic period, Paul's book questions the much debated claim that the Classical polis-religion model declined after the political changes brought about by Alexander the Great. 5


1.  Susan M. Sherwin-White, Ancient Cos. An Historical Study from the Dorian Settlement to the Imperial Period, 1978.
2.  On synoecism and the reorganization of cults, see R. Parker,"Subjection, Synoecism and Religious Life," in P. Funke and N., Luraghi, (eds.), The Politics of Ethnicity and the Crisis of the Peloponnesian League (Washington, DC., 2009), 183-214.
3.   Paul examined pairs of epithets of Zeus and Athena in an earlier paper, "À propos d'épiclèses "trans-divines". Le cas de Zeus et d'Athéna à Cos," ARG 12 (2010): 65-81.
4.   J. P.Vernant, "Mythe et société en Grèce ancienne," (Paris: F. Maspero, 1974), 103-120; G. Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque, (Paris: Payot, 1966), 179-18.
5.   Z. Stewart, "La religione," in R. Bianchi Bandinelli (ed.), La società ellenistica. Economia, diritto, religione (Milano: Storia e Civiltà dei Greci, 1977), 503-529; F. Graf, "Bemerkungen zur bürgerlichen Religiosität im Zeitalter des Hellenismus," in M. Wörrle, and P. Zanker, Stadtbild und Bürgerbild im Hellenismus (München: C. H. Beck München, 1995), 103-114; G. Shipley, The Greek World after Alexander: 323-30 BC (London: Routledge, 2000); J.D. Mikalson, "Greek Religion: Continuity and Change in the Hellenistic Period," in G.R. Bugh, (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World (Cambridge: Cambridge, 2006), 208-222.

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Kristina Milnor, Graffiti and the Literary Landscape in Roman Pompeii. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Pp. xvi, 311. ISBN 9780199684618. $125.00.

Reviewed by Sarah Levin-Richardson, University of Washington (

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In her new book, Milnor explores the roles of literary elements (quotations of canonical literature, as well as literary language, content, and form) in Pompeian graffiti, applying literary criticism to graffiti studies and the material study of graffiti to literary studies. Each chapter investigates a handful of metrical graffiti on a particular theme, allowing Milnor to combine her skill at critical reading1 with comparisons to other graffiti and literature, and examination of physical context. Ultimately finding that individuals remixed elements of oral and written culture in graffiti for their own artistic and social purposes, Milnor advances our understanding of what literature meant to the general populace, while contributing to recent scholarship on the social and material contexts of ancient graffiti.2

Graffiti and the Literary Landscape in Roman Pompeii offers something for everyone. A novice to ancient graffiti (or even antiquity) will appreciate Milnor's clear prose, ample introductory material to the culture of ancient graffiti writing, and the infrequency of untranslated Latin or Greek. Others will enjoy Milnor's discussion (embedded throughout the book) of how literary texts represent and engage with materiality. This includes not only the portrayal of graffiti in literature (e.g., erotic wall graffiti in Pseudo-Lucian's Erotes (p. 21); graffiti as political dissent in Cicero, Suetonius, Strabo, and others (p. 97-101, 119); graffiti as dangerous to wise men in Plutarch (p. 273-4)), but also, for example, Catullus' disavowal of the epitaph format for his poem on the death of his brother (p. 62). I myself value her emphasis on the ways in which graffiti act upon readers, from how second-person forms within graffiti prohibiting dumping made them more effective (p. 53-4), to how the commendation of M. Terentius' amicitia in CIL 4.4456 solidified bonds of beneficia between the writer and Terentius (p. 121-2).

Chapter 1 ("Landscape and Literature in the Roman City") describes some of the fundamental characteristics of the written landscapes of ancient cities. Noting the proliferation of inscriptions commissioned by public officials and private benefactors, Milnor reminds us that ancient graffiti belong within this larger epigraphic context, rather than outside it (as she suggests is the case with modern graffiti, p. 53). She then shows some of the ways graffiti meld various epigraphic and literary genres and engage in complex dialectics with other texts and images in the cityscape. For example, she suggests that poetic quotations painted in the garden of the Caupona of Euxinus rounded out the Hellenistic, bucolic feel of the existing decoration and landscaping, with the effect of turning the space into a "literary landscape" which "allow[ed] the guests briefly to inhabit a pastoral idyll" (p. 93).

"Poetic Politics, Political Poetics" (chapter 2) explores how Pompeian politics, poetry, and wall writing intersect in ways we might not expect from reading literary sources that show graffiti being used for political dissent. For example, Milnor notes several instances where either oral or written poetry has been added to formulaic programmata to help advertise a candidate for office. Some include snippets of what may be political chants or popular poems, another adds a possible "jingle" in hexameter, and two programmata append elegiac couplets (CIL 4.6625 and 7201) that (like literary epigram, Milnor argues) help craft the personas of the candidates and model the ideal relationship between reader and candidate. While graffiti with overtly political content are rare at Pompeii, Milnor shows how they gain power through their resonances with political oratory, the comic stage, and even Greek tragedy, and how this authority can in turn be called upon by other graffiti nearby.

In her third chapter ("Authorship, Appropriation, Authenticity"), Milnor argues that Pompeian graffiti display a popular conception of authorship valuing anonymity, appropriation, and communal composition alongside the more conventional sense of an author as sole and proprietary composer. Even for a set of poems with the seemingly traditional authorship claim Tiburtinus epoese (CIL 4.4966-73), Milnor shows how the word epoese might evoke different modes of authorship, including the Hellenistic tradition of anthologizing, as well as both manufacturing and painting Greek pottery. In other cases, a set of poems written by an unknown individual (CIL 4.1893-6, 1898) combines existing poetry (Ovid and Propertius) with other verses to create new, thematically and linguistically connected poems, and some poems appear in multiple versions with unique endings added by individual writers. Raising the provocative question of whether we (or the ancient writer or reader) can determine where generic conventions end and personal sentiment begins in seemingly individualized, context-specific graffiti, Milnor demonstrates that there are marked similarities between some graffiti and private letters (both literary and those found at Vindolanda).

Chapter 4 ("Gender and Genre: The Case of CIL 4.5296") turns to one of the most contested graffiti at Pompeii, a poem found inside the doorway of a small house that seems to be written from the perspective of a woman wooing another woman in the tradition of exclusus amator poetry. Milnor deploys literary analysis to critique past approaches that turn the poetic scenario into something other than female same-sex desire, convincingly arguing through close reading that that is exactly how we ought to read the poem. She emphasizes the poem's careful and deliberate construction, the use of diminutives to indicate both a female speaker and feminine object of desire, and the representation of men (rather than women) as fickle lovers, which points to a female speaker. Milnor concludes by discussing spatial aspects pertaining to the graffito, including its placement within the decorative scheme of the entranceway and its relationship to other graffiti in that space.

While other scholars interpret Pompeian quotations of Virgil as evidence of Virgil's role in the educational curriculum, or as indicating widespread literary engagement with the Aeneid, Milnor argues in her last chapter ("A Culture of Quotation: Virgil, Education, and Literary Ownership") that Virgilian quotations were "broken down in the digestive system of Roman popular culture" (p. 262) and turned into oft-repeated taglines just like others at Pompeii.3 For example, she notes that a programma's placement of Aeneid 1.1 (CIL 4.7131) below the abbreviation D.I.D.O. shows awareness of Dido's role in the Aeneid; at the same time, 1.1 is not related to Dido, suggesting incomplete familiarity with the Aeneid. Here the quotation extends the visual footprint of the programma and draws upon the esteem granted by literature. A more creative engagement can be seen in the remix fullones ululamque cano, non arma virumque, "I sing the fullers and the screech owl, not arms and the man" (CIL 4.9131), which seems to respond to a nearby fresco of Aeneas and a programma where a certain Fabius Ululitremulus ("owl-fearer") supports candidates for office. The fact that the majority of other quotations from the Aeneid and Eclogues come from speeches both displays interest in the communicative potential of literary genres and perhaps explains the absence of the Georgics, which has comparatively few speeches. An appendix of all Virgilian quotations from Pompeii follows.

Occasionally, I found that Milnor would push an argument beyond what seems plausible (to me). For example, while I was convinced by most of her analysis of epistolary appropriation in graffiti, I was not persuaded that the nearly 170 graffiti of the type "x sends greetings to y" should necessarily be read as "suggest[ing] not only that a certain number of people were familiar with the forms and traditions of epistolography, but that they were able to transfer the sense of themselves as authors which they found there—and which finds its most succinct verbal expression in the letter's opening formula—to the writing of graffiti" (p. 167). In addition, I had hoped for Milnor to present non-literary graffiti with the same nuance as she does literary graffiti. So, for example, when she summarizes that "Pompeian graffiti writers show an abiding interest….not just in crude erotic words and images, but in 'poetic' expressions of desire which ring familiar from more overtly literary contexts" (p. 192), Milnor glosses over the complexity of sexual graffiti.4 Likewise, I wished for Milnor to engage more fully with current scholarship on Pompeian graffiti,5 as in her discussion of how CIL 4.5296 respects the decorative scheme of the entrance hallway (p. 219-20); this could have been framed within Benefiel's work on the ubiquity of graffiti in houses, including this very phenomenon.6 In both cases, readers may come away with an impression of Pompeian graffiti and scholarship thereon as less complex and nuanced than they are.

Factual errors and infelicities are few: e.g., Vetii for Vettii (p. 92), boarder for border (p. 128 and 220), CIL 4.6641 is said to be outside the Nocera rather than Vesuvius gate (p. 52, although the caption to figure 1.1 is correct); the index lists CIL 4.10070 on p. 197, but it is on p. 240.

In sum, Milnor's book is a welcome addition to the field of graffiti studies. Of greatest value are her discussions of Pompeii's non-canonical notion of authorship, and the use of formulaic or even entirely appropriated texts in seemingly personalized graffiti.


1.   For which, see Milnor, K. 2002. "Sulpicia's (Corpo)reality: Elegy, Authorship, and the Body in [Tibullus] 3.13." Classical Antiquity 21: 259-82.
2.   Recent volumes include Baird, J. and C. Taylor, eds. 2011. Ancient Graffiti in Context. New York: Routledge; Keegan, P. 2014. Graffiti in Antiquity. New York: Routledge.
3.   Building from her analysis of the Aeneid in Milnor, K. 2009. "Literary Literacy in Roman Pompeii: The Case of Virgil's Aeneid." In Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, eds. W. A. Johnson and H. N. Parker, 288-319. New York: Oxford.
4.   See Varone, A. 1994. Erotica pompeiana: Iscrizioni d'amore sui muri di Pompei. Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider.
5.   There is a rich body of work on topics such as political subversion and the popular voice (Zadorojnyi, A. 2011. "Transcripts of Dissent? Political Graffiti and Elite Ideology Under the Principate." In Ancient Graffiti in Context, eds. J. Baird and C. Taylor, 110-33. New York: Routledge), the role of graffiti in the domestic sphere (Benefiel, R. 2010. "Dialogues of Ancient Graffiti in the House of Maius Castricius in Pompeii." American Journal of Archaeology 114: 59-101), children's graffiti (Huntley, K. 2011. "Identifying Children's Graffiti in Roman Campania: A Developmental Psychological Approach." In Ancient Graffiti in Context, eds. J. Baird and C. Taylor, 69-89. New York: Routledge), female authorship (Levin-Richardson, S. 2013. "fututa sum hic: Female Subjectivity and Agency in Pompeian Sexual Graffiti." Classical Journal 108: 319-45), and play with personas and rhetoric (Williams, C. 2010. Roman Homosexuality. Second Edition. New York: Oxford; Levin-Richardson, S. 2011. "Facilis hic futuit: Graffiti and Masculinity in Pompeii's 'Purpose-built' Brothel." Helios 38: 59-78).
6.   See n.5.

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Helen Lovatt, The Epic Gaze: Vision, Gender and Narrative in Ancient Epic. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Pp. x, 414. ISBN 9781107016118. $110.00.

Reviewed by Neil W. Bernstein, Ohio University (

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Lovatt's major study has created a new starting point for questions relating to vision throughout the Greco-Roman epic corpus: who sees, who is seen, and how they see. The Epic Gaze is distinguished by the comprehensiveness of its discussion from Homer to Nonnus (though Claudian is unfortunately omitted). At one time, the question of "who sees" in epic might have been addressed mainly in narratological terms, e.g. by examining the presentation of the story through a series of focalizers.1 Psychoanalytic approaches have been the more recent choice. Studies of epic vision have tended to be devoted to a single work and/or to a single controlling theory.2 This study addresses a wide variety of topics relating to vision, and its theoretical approach draws strength from its avowed eclecticism.

Lovatt uses contemporary theories of the gaze, visuality, and film theory to open up questions in the ancient texts, rather than attempt to make them conform to a critical orthodoxy. Lovatt correctly treats dehistoricized or universalizing theories (such as some of the more reductive psychoanalytic approaches) as less productive than ones which pay close attention to the particularities of gender and subject position. The penultimate chapter on the assaultive gaze gains most of its critical purchase from the ancient haptic theories of vision. The reader of epic is often placed at the center of the study, as Lovatt inquires whether a particular episode of viewing by characters models an aspect of the reader's experience. Could elite males, the majority audience of epic, identify with the reactions of characters who occupy a different subject position, either one above theirs like the gods', or below theirs like a female captive's? Did the narrative pleasure of watching an epic hero die reflect any aspect of a female viewer's experience of the Roman gladiatorial games?

Chapters 2 through 4 offer a sustained response to Feeney's The Gods in Epic (Oxford 1991) through their discussions of interaction between gods and human beings. The gods have individuated reactions to the scenes unfolding on earth: the Iliadic Zeus sees the fulfillment of his boulê, whereas the Virgilian Juno views Aeneas' progress to Italy with increasing rage. The gods are not distanced authorities but engaged mediators of the epic story. Their choices to view, intervene, or turn away are tightly related to narrative causation. Human beings' ability to perceive the gods' activities indexes their subject position; yet privileged gaze is no guarantee of equitable treatment, as evidenced by a series of deceptive epiphanies, such as those of Athene in Iliad 1 and 5, Venus in Aeneid 1, and Virtus in Thebaid 10.

When human beings think they see the gods at work, divine mediation again creates absorbing problems in storytelling and philosophy. Lovatt offers an exemplary reading of a difficult scene, Venus' revelation of the gods' destruction of Troy to Aeneas in Aeneid 2. Aeneas' mother must interpret for her son much of what he appears to see, or risk making the attacking Neptune, Juno, and the rest appear "banal or ridiculous" (92). Meanwhile, the passage's evocations of Lucretius (for whom the gods are distant and serene) introduce a series of philosophical ironies that the later epic tradition is only too happy to seize upon. Chapter 4 on the privileged gaze of the prophet completes the book's opening movement on the gods. Female prophets tend to be mad, in contrast to political operators like Homer's Calchas or Virgil's Helenus—until the Flavian poets introduce the mad Mopsus (Valerius) and Melampus (Statius), each of whom complicates earlier epic's gendered lines of division (138).

Chapter 5 on ecphrasis begins with Ariadne's despair in Catullus 64, but continues to develop the theme of interaction with the gods. Characters who can read the text of a divine creation (such as the shields of Achilles or Aeneas) enjoy similar privileges to those who perceive the gods' epiphanies, while the narrator who describes a divine creation resembles the prophet who elucidates the gods' activities. Chapters 6 and 7 focus most directly on gendered gazes and bodies. Episodes of dreaming, teichoscopy, and lamentation are characteristic venues for a distinctively female gaze. Distance from the battlefield, however, does not imply lack of narrative control: as Lovatt observes "in the Ovidian narrative [of Scylla], and in Valerian teichoscopy, the battle exists only for the benefit of its female viewer, who is the point of the story" (241). Epic celebrates the heroic male body through comparisons to stars, horses, and works of art. Vernant's reading of the "beautiful death" is here extended throughout the epic corpus. Death can be eroticized in the description of the fallen young man as a flower; spectacularized, in the anachronistic comparisons in Roman epic between dueling and gladiatorial combat; or fetishized in the focus on the corpse in fragments. Attention to subject position indicates the complexity of epic's gladiatorial imagery. The poets call attention to the conceptual distance between the socially dead gladiator and the high-status epic duelist, as well as between the Roman audience watching for pleasure and the poems' internal audiences watching as epic champions determine their fate.

Chapter 8 on the assaultive gaze engages ancient haptic theories of vision most fully, from folk concepts of the evil eye to "scholarly" efforts to explain vision as beams emitted from the eye. Fear of hostile or intrusive gazes may still contribute to the modern obsession with privacy. The motif of the hero's fiery eyes that terrify or assault his observers, however, is one of the most foreign aspects of epic for us, if only because our folk theories of vision have changed so radically. Ovid's Invidia episode epitomizes the Metamorphoses' sidewise glance at the tradition, while Medea's destruction of Talos at the end of Apollonius' epic is a characteristic subversion of Homeric values in its transfer of power from Jason to his barbarian female protector. The final chapter on the monumental gaze begins with Ovid's Perseus turning his enemies into statues with the aid of Medusa's head, an example of the Metamorphoses' typical driving of epic tropes toward absurdity. Medusa's ongoing power even in her objectified state characterizes both the ambiguous status of women in epic and the genre's uneasy embrace of its monumentalizing function. The poets contrast their works' ability to preserve memory with the real world's monuments, from the Iliadic Hector's offer of a sêma to his victim to Lucan's pitiful grave of Magnus.

As noted above, scope is one of the major strengths of this study. Silius' Punica receives as full a discussion as the other Flavian epics, and the late ancient poets Nonnus and Quintus of Smyrna are given attentive consideration. Lovatt's introductions will hopefully reawaken interest in these understudied texts, ones that show both the genre's continuities and the ability of each successor to manipulate it. (Given the flood of recent books on the Flavian poets, it may be hard to remember that they were once considered equally irrelevant to discussions of "epic".) Claudian's De Raptu Proserpinae should have been included in this comprehensive study. The relative absence of human characters in this short narrative of divine rape and passage between the worlds above and below means the gods' gazes and interactions can be studied from a different perspective from the rest of the tradition.

The organization of the chapters is sometimes unpredictable: for example, Silius' shield of Hannibal is discussed in four separate subsections of the ecphrasis chapter (ch. 5), making an overall reading of this passage difficult to obtain. It is very rare that readings employ a heuristic that Lovatt describes as "potentially banal" (273); but it does occur in the question of whether the gaze of Virgil's Aeneas (211) or Silius' Hannibal (257) are "female". Conjugal love, terror at omens, and moments of passivity are shared by the victorious heroes of epic as well as the defeated ones; the gods too can be thwarted and disempowered (224). Subsequent sections proceed to observe that there may not be "any real difference between the feminine and the problematical masculine" (265); and that some of epic's speakers crudely apply "feminine" "to the powerless and submissive half of a hierarchical relationship" (297) (including defeated warriors), even as others deconstruct such an opposition.

It is not a criticism to observe that that the brevity of particular discussions often leaves the reader wanting more. Lovatt's remarks comparing the doomed hero/victim of epic and the "final girl" of the slasher film who turns on the slasher (299) are tantalizingly brief; this suggestion would profit from further investigation.3 The discussion of Statius' involvement in the philosophical tradition of viewing and being viewed by the gods through the figure of Capaneus is also rapid (108-111); see now Chaudhuri's full-scale reading.4 These minor criticisms aside, The Epic Gaze is strongly recommended for anyone interested in Greco-Roman epic, ancient narrative, or ancient theories of vision.


1.   See Gérard Genette, Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method (Oxford 1980 [1972]), 186. Narratological approaches to ancient epic include Don P. Fowler, "Narrate and Describe: The Problem of Ekphrasis," JRS 81 (1991), 25-35; Irene J. F. de Jong, Narrators and Focalizers. The Presentation of the Story in the Iliad (Amsterdam 1987).
2.   Examples include J. D. Reed, Virgil's gaze: nation and poetry in the Aeneid (Princeton 2007); R. Alden Smith, The Primacy of Vision in Virgil's Aeneid (Austin 2005); Patricia B. Salzman-Mitchell, A Web of Fantasies: Gaze, Image, and Gender in Ovid's Metamorphoses (Columbus 2005); Matthew G. Lovatt Leigh, Lucan: Spectacle and Engagement (Oxford 1997).
3.   For a recent study of viewing violence in epic and film, see Kyle Gervais, "Viewing violence in Statius' Thebaid and the films of Quentin Tarantino," in Helen Lovatt and Caroline Vout (eds.), Epic Visions: Visuality in Greek and Latin Epic and its Reception (Cambridge 2013), pp. 139-167.
4.   Pramit Chaudhuri, The War With God: Theomachy in Roman Imperial Poetry (Oxford 2014), 256-297.

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Matt Waters, Ancient Persia. A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Pp. xx, 252. ISBN 9780521253697. $29.99 (pb).

Reviewed by Catherine M. Draycott, British Institute at Ankara (

Version at BMCR home site

Literature on the Achaemenid Persian Empire has flourished in the last half century and continues to gather pace in a way that almost echoes the rapid expansion of the Empire itself. Much of the most recent material consists of specialist papers in edited conference volumes, which while valuable can be difficult for beginners to penetrate and for teachers to use as class set texts.1 J.M. Cook's 1983 The Persian Empire (London) is out of date and while Pierre Briant's 1996 Histoire de l'Empire perse (Paris) remains essential, it is more encyclopaedic than introductory. Newer books by Lindsay Allen, Maria Brosius, Joseph Wiesehöfer and Amélie Kuhrt are more wieldy and all good, but cover slightly different ground: Allen's is a highly readable overview, strong on art and archaeology and especially on the historiography and Greek representations of Persia. Brosius' and Wiesehöfer's books cover more abbreviated parts of and extend beyond the Achaemenid period, and Kuhrt's collects essential textual sources with important commentary.2

Matt Waters's book should now be the first stop for those wanting an introduction to the Achaemenids and the study of them. It is a traditional history handbook, a chronological political narrative punctuated with social themes, but a thoroughly enjoyable one: well written and stimulating, the chapters pull the reader along through the book, and while concise it is packed with information and satisfyingly detailed, lucid discussions. A few typos aside, the copy is clean and well-illustrated with images and good maps.3 It shares with the books mentioned above the approach of the 'New Achaemenid History', wherein biases in the preponderance of Greek literary sources are made explicit and balanced with the different quality of information available from Near Eastern sources.4 Waters's book is a great success in these terms. The author displays equal control over the Greek and the myriad of non-Greek sources, which range from trilingual monumental royal inscriptions, clay tablets, Babylonian chronicles and the Bible to inscriptions and private letters from Egypt. From these he deftly weaves the story of this first Persian Empire, from their origins in the early Iron Age groups of Iran through to the take over of their vast territory by Alexander the Great, integrating into it the character of the sources.

A particular strength is Waters's expertise in the pre- and early Achaemenid periods, situating the rise of the Achaemenids within a rich, if obscure history of kingdoms in western Iran, particularly the Elamites. The Achaemenid trajectory is thereby portrayed as both grounded and extraordinary. The book will make a good companion to handbooks on archaic and classical Greek history as it covers the activities of the Greeks in Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean from a Persian perspective. Of course not everything can be covered in a concise history; Waters is strong on texts, briefer on (although not inattentive to) the archaeology. The only real deficiency, though, is the limited secondary references. The endnotes contain a wealth of valuable references, but they are few in number and can feel arbitrary (e.g. a note for discussion of 'Medizing', p. 122, but not for debates about army estimates, p. 121). An overburden of endnotes might be deemed undesirable for an introductory handbook, but the selectivity here limits readers' ability to pursue scholarly debates flagged by the author.

The book is split into twelve succinct chapters of roughly 15–20 pages each. The front matter includes explanation of textual sources, and relevant volumes and internet sites through which they can be consulted (xv–xvii). After a brief sketch of geography and terminology ('Persian', for instance), Chapter 1 further characterizes the Near Eastern and Greek textual sources, with an excursus on issues surrounding use of the latter. Chapter 2 follows with discussion of Early Iron Age Iran, including the migration of Iranian-language speakers into the area and the major powers: Elam, Assyria, Babylonia and various Anatolian kingdoms. The Medes, whose empire the Persians subjugated according to Herodotus, get their own sub-section. Here marriage of story and sources is not as crisp as elsewhere, some details skimmed over. For instance, it is only at the end that one learns about Babylonian and Biblical traditions of the Medes as a major power. Explanation of how these compare with the scarce Assyrian allusions to them as a collection of fortress-based, dynast-led groups rather than an empire (a la Herodotus) would be helpful.

Any fears that skimming may be a consistent feature of such a concise book are quickly vanquished through the following chapters. Chapter 3 deals with the emergence of Cyrus and the early Empire. This is a particularly obscure area, but Waters's expertise in the Near Eastern sources allows him to balance Greek tradition with what can be understood of the Iranian context, flagging areas such as the role of Anshan in Elam and the importance of hostage princes at Assyrian courts for knowledge transfer. Chapter 4 covers the death of Cyrus, the reign of Cambyses, the extensive problems surrounding his death and the accession of Darius I, with much discussion of Darius' Bisitun Inscriptions and Herodotus.5 Waters shows Near Eastern precedents for the rhetorical formulas employed at Bisitun and proposes that later adjustments to add Darius' Scythian campaign may have been felt so important because this was the (general) region in which Cyrus died in battle.

The next four chapters (5 through 8) alternate the reigns of Darius and Xerxes with social institutions: first Darius' triumphs over rebellions, his rhetoric (Bisitun again) and campaigns; next the 'mechanics' of empire (the court, administration, payment of tribute, satrapies, army and roads); then the accession of Xerxes through to his invasion of Greece; and following that the 'anatomy' of empire (capitals, ideology, religion). 'Court' gives welcome consideration to gender (women and eunuchs), but discussion of court and capitals could have been brought together in the same chapter for a more holistic discussion of urbanism and the architecture of court, both material and social. Limited space means some skimming here too: one would like a bit more detail on the remains of some of the capitals (Susa, for instance).6 Concerning the economy, Waters explains how clay accounts tablets from Persepolis are helping to clarify this, but the lack of resolution in understanding payment systems in the western satrapies and how coinage relates to this could be flagged more strongly. Such issues do not disturb the overall achievement of the book, however. The structure allows the author to introduce themes then picked up in subsequent chapters in a way that conveys diachronic development. Religion, for instance, is considered further in the royal inscriptions of a number of rulers, where new gods are introduced. The initial discussion of Achaemenid religion handles the primary issue of whether it can be called 'Zoroastrian', with specific attention to Zoroaster, as well as the contradictions in sources about whether the Achaemenids were laissez-faire about allowing worship of other gods. One matter that might be considered further, and aside from the Zoroastrian question, is the conceptualisation of Ahuramazda.

The next three chapters, 9 through 11, run through the reigns of the subsequent seven Achaemenid Kings, who ruled from the 460s to the 330s BC: Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II and Darius II (Ochus) (Chapter 9); Artaxerxes II (Arses) and Artaxerxes III (Ochus) (Chapter 10); and Artaxerxes IV and Darius III (Chapter 11). Court intrigues surrounding accession were a popular subject in Greek literature, and Waters weighs these judiciously against Near Eastern evidence. Of the numerous things covered in these chapters, the traditions surrounding various rebellions through the empire are examined perspicaciously, including ongoing affairs in the northwest of the Empire, the Aegean and Mediterranean. Waters offers lucid, critical discussion of such issues as the Peace of Kallias, the Persian role in the Peloponnesian War and continuing fourth century conflicts of the Greeks, who frequently appealed to the rulers of Western Anatolia for alliances and aid. Chapter 11 ends with the rise of Macedonia and Alexander's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. He places Alexander's incursions into Asia in the context of Philip's campaigns in Hellespontine Phrygia, a region with close connections to Thrace and Macedonia. Here, as with the earlier Greco-Persian wars, Waters highlights New Achaemenid History's revisions of old-fashioned, Hellenocentric ideas of Persian impetuousness and weakness. For instance, Darius' retaliation following the Ionian Revolt fits well into Near Eastern traditions of punishing recalcitrant subjects, already made abundantly clear at Bisitun (Waters reminds us that an Athenian embassy had at one point given earth and water to the King). Xerxes' larger campaign implies he was set on expansion, which also fits traditional Near Eastern ideologies of a ruler's duties. In the fourth century BC, what seem like constant rebellions attested in Greek sources are not necessarily an indication of an empire in decline, but a more or less continuous feature of such a large empire. Hence, Alexander's conquest was down to continued military successes rather than because the Empire was on the brink of collapse. At the end of Chapter 11 and in a short epilogue (Chapter 12), Waters also makes clear the difficulties Alexander faced in stepping into the role of the King as a peripheral foreigner.

The book closes with four appendices: a useful reference timeline; a chronological list of Kings; a genealogical chart of the Kings; and further readings. As noted earlier, endnotes are limited. The further reading list is also select, with readings listed under general headings rather than according to the book's chapter and section headings, which would be a more useful reference tool. This aside, this book is a strong synthesis, which will be instrumental in disseminating the gains of the last decades of Achaemenid studies to a broad readership and in encouraging scholarship that transcends the traditional disciplinary boundaries of Classics and Ancient Near Eastern studies. It is not only useful, but a model of engaging scholarly writing, and a good read.


1.   Many are referenced either in the further reading or endnotes. Some from the last five years that are not: Lanfranchi, G.B. and Rollinger, R. (eds) 2010: Concepts of Kingship in Antiquity: Proceedings of the European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop held in Padova, November 28th–December 1st, 2007 (Padova); Summerer, L., von Kienlin, A., and Ivantchik, A. (eds) 2011: Kelainai–Apameia Kibotos: Stadtentwicklung im anatolischen Kontext. Akten des Kolloquiums, München 2 April–4 April 2009 (Bordeaux), BMCR 2012.05.45; Ro, J.U. (ed.), 2012: From Judah to Judea: Socio-economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period (Sheffield); Rollinger, R. and Schnegg, K. (eds) 2014: Kulturkontakte in antiken Welten: vom Denkmodell zum Fallbeispiel. Proceedings des internationalen Kolloquiums aus Anlass des 60. Geburtstages von Christoph Ulf, Innsbruck, 26. bis 30. Januar 2009 (Leuven); Frevel, C., Pyschny, K., and Cornelius, I. (eds) 2014: A 'Religious Revolution' in Yehûd? The Material Culture of the Persian Period as a Test Case (Fribourg).
2.   Allen, L. 2005: The Persian Empire: A History (London); Brosius, M. 2000: The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I (London); Brosius, M. 2006: The Persians: An Introduction (London), BMCR 2007.10.10; Wiesehöfer, J. 2001: Ancient Persia: from 550 BC to 650 AD, 2nd English ed., trans. by A. Azodi (London) (=1993: Das antike Persien von 550 v. Chr. bis 650 n. Chr. [Zürich]); Kuhrt, A.I. 2007: The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period, (London).
3.   For 487/86 on p. 165 read 387/86. In further reading list, p. 227, Ruzcka should be Ruzicka (see BMCR 2013.03.21).
4.   For recent overviews, more explicit on postcolonial approaches: Colburn, H.P. 2011: 'Orientalism, Postcolonialism, and the Achaemenid Empire: Meditations on Bruce Lincoln's Religion, Empire, and Torture'. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 54, 87–103; McCaskie, T.C. 2012: '"As on a Darkling Plain": Practitioners, Publics, Propagandists, and Ancient Historiography'. Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, 145–73.
5.   J.M. Balcer's 1987 Herodotus and Bisitun: Problems in Ancient Persian Historiography (Stuttgart) is not referenced.
6.   More detail in Allen (see n. 2, above). Now on Susa Perrot, J. 2013: The Palace of Darius at Susa: The Great Royal Residence of Achaemenid Persia (London). ​

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